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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|26614||2012||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 65, Issue 5, May 2012, Pages 685–691
Self-image congruence helps explain and predict different facets of consumer behavior. To date, application of self-congruence theories to tourist post-travel evaluations is limited. This study tests a model that includes self-image congruence, cruise ship passengers' experiences, satisfaction, and behavioral intention. Path modeling tests the hypotheses using a sample of 169 cruise ship travelers. Results indicate that self-image congruence (actual and ideal) affects passengers' experiences but indirectly influences satisfaction levels. Satisfaction positively relates to respondents' propensity to recommend. Overall, this research advances the understanding of cruise ship passengers' experiences and behaviors offering important managerial implications.
The consumer behavior literature supports the proposition that individuals' self images dictate specific purchase behavior patterns (e.g., Onkvisit and Shaw, 1987). Consumers buy products and brands they believe to possess symbolic images similar and/or complementary to their self-image, that is, to achieve image congruence (Heath and Scott, 1998). Strong supporting evidence show self-image congruence explains and predicts different aspects of consumer behavior (He and Mukherjee, 2007). A relatively small body of work examines the self-image congruence construct to explain tourist behaviors (Litvin et al., 2001, Litvin and Goh, 2002, Sirgy and Su, 2000 and Todd, 2001). Chon (1992) first empirically applies self-image congruence theory to tourism. He finds tourist satisfaction significantly correlates with self-image/destination image congruity. Tourists perceiving a low discrepancy between a destination's image and self-image tend to be more satisfied with the trip experience. Furthermore, Sirgy and Su (2000) propose an integrative model establishing the relationships among destination image, self-congruence, and tourists' behaviors. Beerli et al. (2007) investigate the self-image congruence role in predicting destination choice. Findings reveal a match between a destination's image and one's self-concept, associates with a greater tendency to visit the destination. Other studies, however, fail to provide empirical support for the theory in tourism. For example, Litvin and Goh (2002) investigate the effect of self-image congruence on travel interest and intention to visit. Litvin and Goh (2002) report contradictory results and question whether self-congruity theory is an effective tool for tourism marketers. Several other scholars call for research to establish the relevance of self-congruity theory and to further extend the conceptualization in tourism (e.g., Beerli et al., 2007, Boksberger and al., forthcoming, Kastenholz, 2004 and Murphy et al., 2007). Tourists increasingly consume travel and tourism products (e.g., a cruise vacation) as a means of self-expression (Gross and Brown, 2006 and King, 2002). Still, no known studies exist to simultaneously investigate the relationship among self-image congruence and the evaluative variable experiences, satisfaction, and intention to recommend. This study further validates self-congruity theory in tourism with specific reference to cruise ship passengers. Cruise vacations are the fastest growing segment in the tourism industry with an average annual passenger growth rate of 7.2% (Cruise Lines International Association, 2010). Cruising enables tourists to express their self-concepts (Yarnal and Kerstetter, 2005). The activity offers tourists experiential benefits and opportunities to engage in a memorable experience (Duman and Mattila, 2005 and Huang and Hsu, 2010). Despite a cruise vacation's symbolic nature, the study of cruisers' experiences and post-travel behavior remains under-explored in tourism research (Petrick, 2004).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Self-congruity theory postulates the congruence resulting from a psychological comparison involving the product–user image and the consumer's self-concept influences consumer behavior (Sirgy et al., 1997). The self-image congruence effect on tourist post-consumption evaluations remains an under-studied topic (Beerli et al., 2007 and Kastenholz, 2004). This study furthers the understanding of tourist behavior by investigating inter-relationships among self-image congruence, tourists' experiences, and intention to recommend. The study implications are discussed below and future research areas are highlighted. From a theoretical perspective, the current study establishes the validity of self-congruity theory in tourism. Specifically, the results suggest higher congruity between cruisers' self-concept (actual and ideal) and perceived images of other tourists contribute to overall favorable trip experiences. The findings reveal ideal-image congruity is more important than actual-image congruity. This result is consistent with previous studies identifying ideal self-image congruence as the main variable in consumer research (Ekinci et al., 2008, Graeff, 1996, Hong and Zinkhan, 1995 and Malhotra, 1988). Graeff (1996) suggests conspicuous products consumed publicly (e.g., a cruise vacation) are more influenced by ideal-image congruity than actual-image congruity. The results do not confirm self-image congruence's relationship to satisfaction. This finding differs from previous tourism studies (Chon, 1992 and Litvin and Kar, 2003). Both Chon, 1992 and Litvin and Kar, 2003 find actual self-image and ideal-image congruence significantly relate to tourist satisfaction. Methodological differences plausibly explain the divergent results. First, the present study adapts Beerli et al.'s (2007) self-image congruence measure using a variant of Malhotra's (1981) self-concept scale. Respondents rated their perceptions of other tourists as well as their self-concepts and the level of congruity estimated using discrepancy scores. In contrast, both Chon, 1992 and Litvin and Kar, 2003 directly ask tourists to rate their actual and ideal self-image congruence using five statements. Interestingly, Litvin and Goh's (2002), comparative study report inconsistent findings in their applications of Chon, 1992 and Malhotra, 1981 scales. Second, Chon, 1992 and Litvin and Kar, 2003 operationalize satisfaction as a dependent variable; the present study considers satisfaction a mediating variable between self-image congruence and intention to recommend. Chon, 1992 and Litvin and Kar, 2003 measure satisfaction using three questions: (1) a seven-point facial scale (smiling to angry face); (2) a seven-point delighted-terrible scale; and (3) a non-verbal graphic scale. This study conceptualizes satisfaction as an overall evaluation of the cruise vacation and assesses the construct using two statements on a 7-point scale: extremely dissatisfied/extremely satisfied; and terrible/delighted. Findings support Landon, 1974 and Malhotra, 1988 assertions that the extent self-concept affects consumer behavior depends on consumption situations. To further advance knowledge of self-image congruity's role in tourism, additional research needs to consider recent studies (e.g., Beerli et al., 2007) and compare the direct approach (e.g., Chon, 1992) with the traditional method (e.g., Malhotra, 1981) in various tourism settings. Furthermore, predicting tourists' future behaviors remains an important area of research (e.g., Baker and Crompton, 2000 and Hui et al., 2007). The study findings indicate tourists' experiences positively relate to their satisfaction level. These results support prior cruise vacation studies (Duman and Mattila, 2005 and Huang and Hsu, 2010) suggesting affective experiences positively influence perceived overall satisfaction. In addition, as predicted, a positive relationship between satisfaction and intention to recommend exists confirming previous research (Hui et al., 2007 and Yoon and Uysal, 2005). Overall, results provide insights into a model that includes self-image congruence, experiences, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. However, these findings are still exploratory and further validation is required. 5.1. Managerial implications Results broadly apply to managers in the tourism, hospitality, and service industries. Marketers are under greater pressure to understand consumers' experiences and the resulting influence on post-purchase evaluations. The findings show actual and ideal self-image congruence play important roles in determining tourists' experiences. Higher congruity between cruisers self-concept and his/her image of other tourists relates to more stimulating, exciting, enjoyable, and interesting cruise experiences. These experiences positively relate to satisfaction suggesting important implications for developing promotional strategies. Cruise liners should develop distinctive brand positions reinforcing the perceived image/personality of the typical cruise tourist. Marketers must develop an image closely matching the self-perception of potential tourists. Cruise marketers must adapt their advertising messages to target customer's self-concept. Previous research establishes advertising appeals congruent with one's self-concept are more superior to incongruent appeals in enhancing advertising effectiveness (Graeff, 1996 and Hong and Zinkhan, 1995). In addition, managers need to understand the role of actual self-image congruity, ideal self-image congruity, experiences and satisfaction in explaining tourists' behavioral intention. The findings suggest self-image congruity influences cruisers' experiences and through satisfaction predicts intention to recommend. Creating pleasant and memorable experiences generates higher satisfaction levels and positively influences passengers' behavioral intentions. 5.2. Limitations and future research Results advance theory about self-image congruence in tourism but some study limitations exist. First, this study only investigates the effects of self-congruity on cruisers' experiences and post-travel behaviors. Previous research establishes that consumer behaviors also can be driven by functional congruity (e.g., Sirgy et al., 1991 and Sirgy et al., 2000). Functional congruity refers to the match between consumers' (tourists') ideal expectations of a product, brand, or destination's utilitarian features and how the product/brand/destination is perceived along the same attributes (Kressmann et al., 2006). Future studies should incorporate both self-congruity and functional congruity in modeling tourists' experiences, satisfaction and intention to recommend. Finally, findings are limited to collecting data from one cruise vacation. Future studies should collect data from cruise passengers at different times of the year, on different ships, at different locations and destinations, and on multiple cruise lines.