گرسنگی، کنترل بازدارنده و غذا خوردن احساسی ناشی از پریشانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|34143||2014||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Appetite, Volume 79, 1 August 2014, Pages 124–133
Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake.
Distress is associated with both increased and decreased food intake (Greeno & Wing, 1994), with eating less being the typical and predominant response (Gold, Chrousos, 2002 and Stone, Brownell, 1994). Distress is normally associated with physiological responses that are designed to prepare the individual for a fight or flight reaction: inhibition of gastric motility and release of sugar into the bloodstream. As these physiological states are similar to the chief peripheral physiological correlates of satiety, distress generally leads to decreased eating and subsequent weight loss (Gold, Chrousos, 2002 and Stone, Brownell, 1994). However, so-called emotional eaters show the atypical response to distress of eating similar or larger amounts of food (Oliver et al, 2000, van Strien et al, 2013a, van Strien et al, 2012a, van Strien, Ouwens, 2003 and Wallis, Hetherington, 2004). Though these effects are robust when participants have sufficiently extreme emotional eating scores1 and/or ego threat is involved (van Strien et al., 2012a), little is known about the mechanisms underlying these effects. In an earlier study on possible mechanisms we examined whether this opposite pattern of emotional over-eating is associated with changes in the stress reactivity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as indicated by changes in the stress hormone cortisol after a distress (ego-threat) versus a control condition (van Strien, Roelofs, & de Weerth, 2013b). Cortisol stress reactivity was indeed found to significantly moderate the relationship between emotional eating and the difference in food intake after distress versus control tasks. High emotional eaters with a blunted cortisol response ate more food after distress than those with an elevated cortisol stress response (see Tomiyama, Dallman, & Epel, 2011, and Tryon, DeCant, & Laugero, 2013, for similar findings). This finding suggests that emotional over-eating is indeed associated with a lowered HPA-axis functioning, though it is as yet unclear whether this blunted cortisol response is secondary (i.e. the result of an adaptive down regulation) or primary to emotional eating (see van Strien et al., 2013b). In the present study on the same sample plus additional participants 2 we want to pursue our search for possible mechanisms further, this time by addressing the relationship of emotional eating with (1) self-reports of hunger after stress versus control and (2) inhibitory control. Emotional over-eating may be the result of a failure to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger. An earlier study examined the hunger ratings immediately after a distress vs. control condition of low versus high emotional eaters (van Strien et al., 2012a). It was found that high emotional eaters, in contrast to the low emotional eaters, did not report a substantial reduction of hunger immediately after the stress task compared with the control task. This finding suggests that high emotional eaters, in contrast to the low emotional eaters, indeed suffer from an a-typical hunger stress response. Whether this a-typical hunger stress response also predicts distress-induced food intake was, however, not investigated in that study. Furthermore, there are to our best knowledge no published studies that have systematically tested the relationship between hunger stress reactivity and actual stress-induced food intake in high and low emotional eaters. The present study is therefore the first to systematically examine whether the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake is affected by the individual's hunger stress reactivity. Failure to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger of high emotional eaters may be the result of poor interoceptive awareness, that is a confusion of physiological symptoms associated with stress and negative emotions and those associated with hunger and satiety (Bruch, 1964). Poor interoceptive awareness is highly associated with alexithymia (Greek, literally meaning ‘no words for emotions’), most notably the alexithymia aspects of difficulty in identifying feelings and describing feelings to other people (Garner, 1991 and Taylor et al, 1996). The association of poor interoceptive awareness and alexithymia with self-reported emotional eating has been widely established (Larsen et al, 2006, Pinaquy et al, 2003 and van Strien et al, 2005), with in one study a moderator effect of alexithymia on actual distress-induced food intake (van Strien & Ouwens, 2007). However, whether poor interoceptive awareness and alexithymia are also associated with hunger stress reactivity (typical versus a-typical hunger responses after stress versus control) has not yet been assessed. Similarly, it is as yet unknown whether a possible moderator effect of hunger stress reactivity on the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake is mediated by poor interoceptive awareness and alexithymia. Inability to inhibit motor impulses (pressing a button) – a measure for inhibitory control, which has been considered an indirect measure for impulsivity (Jansen et al., 2009) – would also be a good candidate for affecting the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. In a series of studies summarized by Jansen et al., (2009), inability to inhibit motor impulses, as measured with the stop signal task (by Logan, Schachar, & Tannock, 1997), predicted higher food intake, a higher body weight and less weight loss after a weight reduction treatment. However, in more recent studies inability to stop motor impulses only predicted overeating and weight gain in combination with other factors, such as a high implicit preference for the test food, high dietary restraint or strong feelings of hunger (Jansen et al, 2009 and Nederkoorn et al, 2010). Emotional eating could also be such a factor, given the association of emotional eating with various self-report measures of reduced inhibitory control or negative urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in the face of negative affect) (Bekker et al, 2004, Ebneter et al, 2012, Elfhag, Morey, 2008, Lattimore et al, 2011, Ouwens et al, 2009 and Racine et al, 2013) and the number of false alarms in a Go/NoGo task, a measure of efficiency of inhibitory control in the presence of food cues (Jasinska et al., 2012). We know of no published study that tested the relationship between inability to stop motor impulses and actual stress-induced food intake in high and low emotional eaters. Hence, to the best of our knowledge this would be the first study to assess the effect of this implicit measure of impulsivity on the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. This study aims at exploring the relationships of (1) hunger stress reactivity and (2) inhibitory control with actual distress-induced food intake in high versus low emotional eaters. As in most previous studies on emotional eating the focus is on females and on eating in response to negative emotions 3 (see also Gibson, 2012). Earlier, we found that emotional eating significantly moderated the distress-food intake association, with low emotional eaters eating less after the stress than after the control task and high emotional eaters eating more. For the present study we hypothesized that this moderator effect of emotional eating would be more likely to hold true for participants with an a-typical hunger stress response (failure to show the typical reduction of hunger after stress), and for participants with high inability to stop motor impulses (poor inhibitory control). Specifically, participants who combined an a-typical hunger stress response or poor inhibitory control with high emotional eating were expected to eat more after the stressor than those with the typical hunger stress response and adequate inhibitory control. We left it an open empirical question whether this possible moderator effect of hunger stress reactivity on the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake would be mediated by poor interoceptive awareness or alexithymia.