بررسی رفتار انسان در تخلیه اضطراری از فروشگاه خرده فروشی زیرزمینی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|28151||2014||7 صفحه PDF||14 صفحه WORD|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Procedia Engineering, Volume 71, 2014, Pages 350–356
طراحی و پیاده سازی تمرین تخلیه
جدول 1 اطلاعات چهار سناریوی مختلف در تمرین تخلیه
نتایج و بحث
مشخصات رفتار تخلیه
جدول 2 نسبت خروج-انتخاب در سناریوهای تخلیه مختلف
نمودار: احتمال و احتمال تجمعی سرعتهای حركت عابر پیاده در تمرینهای تخلیه
زمان تخلیه و جریان ویژه
جدول 3 تخلیه كنندگان تجمعی و زمان تخلیه هر خروجی در سناریوهای تخلیه مختلف
نمودار: نمایش زمان تخلیه و ظرفیت خروجی مجموع در سناریوهای تخلیه مختلف
نمودارهای جریان ویژه عابران پیاده كه از طریق خروجیهای مختلف
Pedestrian evacuation from underground building in emergency situations could be influenced by the structure of buildings, characteristics of pedestrian movement and seriousness of emergency events. To understand the evacuation process of pedestrian in emergency, evacuation drills on an underground retail store and a questionnaire survey are conducted. The characteristics of human evacuation behaviour are discussed and the evacuation time and specific flow in each evacuation scenario are analyzed. The phenomenon of unbalance exit-selection is revealed, and more guidance devices are needed in the underground retail store. The results also indicate that obstacles nearby the emergency exits should be removed and the clustering places for evacuees should be far away from the emergency exits. It is concluded that the results could provide assessment of the accuracy of existing egress models, and ensure that building owners and managers have a sound basis for evacuation planning.
Human behaviors in fire have attracted researchers from all over the world to carry out research, especially ever since the“911” disaster. For the reason that more complexity of human behaviors in fires, the means of data collection, such as questionnaire survey, interviews with survivors of fire, evacuation drills and unannounced evacuations involving members of the public , have been used to explore human behaviors. The evacuation process might be influenced by many factors, especially the human behaviors, such as recognition,response and motion characteristics of evacuees [2, 3]. Referring to the evacuation from retail stores, the complex building structures and evacuation routes should be taken into consideration. Shields et al. [4, 5] and Samochine et al.  had conducted unannounced evacuation drills in retail stores to obtain the original data of evacuation process and capture the characteristics of human behavior. In their studies, the participants had no prior knowledge of the evacuations, and the evacuation processes were recorded by digital cameras. Moreover, an announced evacuation drill from retail store  was also conducted in China. These researches mainly focus on the pre-movement time, exit choice during the evacuation process, as well as the influences of staff behaviors on evacuation process and so on. However, there are usually many fire compartments in the retail stores, and they will be closed in emergency situations except the fire doors between the fire compartments. The influences of taking fire doors of adjacent fire compartments as emergency exits on evacuation process have not been clearly identified, and more researches with respect to this issue are needed. To explore the effect of useable fire doors of adjacent fire compartments and individual characteristics on the efficiency of retail store evacuation, in this paper, the evacuation drills in different scenarios from an underground retail store and a questionnaire survey are conducted to investigate the evacuation process. The evacuation processes are recorded by digital cameras placed beside the exits and the surveillance cameras in the retail store. In this way, the evacuation time, the ratio of exit selecting, as well as the influences of useable of fire doors of adjacent fire compartments and pedestrian distributions on evacuation efficiency can be obtained and discussed. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section 2, evacuation drills in an underground retail store and a questionnaire survey are presented. The results and discussion are given in section 3 follows by a brief summary of the findings in the last section.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Aiming at understanding the characteristics of pedestrian movement in emergent situations, evacuation drills from an underground retail store were conducted followed by a questionnaire survey. The parameter of exit capacity was introduced to assess the evacuation efficiency in different evacuation scenarios. Based on the results, the pedestrian evacuation behavior, evacuation time and specific flow in different evacuation scenarios were analyzed and discussed. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: