مجرمین جنسی پرخطر: بررسی تخیلات جنسی، انحراف جنسی، اختلالات فکری و روانی و ویژگی های جرم
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|35736||2013||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Volume 36, Issue 2, March–April 2013, Pages 144–156
High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 “other” sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders.
Over a decade ago, the Government of Canada established a task force to understand more clearly what needed to be done regarding high-risk sexual offenders. A “high-risk” offender is typically defined in a clinical setting as an individual who, based on an evaluation of a number of actuarial and clinical risk factors, has a high probability of re-offending (Hanson, 1998). However, the clinical conceptualization of high-risk has also had major implications within a legal setting. In fact, based on the report of the Government of Canada's task force, a comprehensive package of aggressive reforms was introduced to the Criminal Code of Canada which were intended to better manage and control what is referred to in Canada as “dangerous offenders” ( Canada Solicitor General, 2001). These dangerous offender provisions stipulate that the most dangerous and violent sexual predators are to remain incarcerated until it is believed that there is no longer a risk to the general public. 1 It has very aptly been suggested that a more refined understanding of high-risk sexual offenders would be particularly beneficial as this subset of offenders is typically more violent, have a greater number of victims, and are at a greater risk for sexual recidivism ( Levenson, 2004). High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of individuals who are likely motivated by a combination of biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Unfortunately, minimal research has investigated the motivational and offence characteristics of sexual offenders, and this is particularly true among samples deemed to be high-risk. In fact, the majority of existing studies have focused specifically on issues of risk, and the utility and predictive ability of risk assessment measures. An additional shortcoming of the existing literature is its predominant focus on child molesters exclusively, or on sexual offenders as a single unit with very little distinction of offender type. Given the diverse nature of sexual offenders, we sought to examine motivational and offence characteristics across all types of sexual offenders among a group of offenders considered to be some of the highest risk sexual offenders. Although the current article does not claim to provide a snapshot of the characteristics of sex offenders in general, it does afford a unique opportunity to gain a more informed understanding of some of the characteristics and factors that contribute to high-risk sexual offenders.