ریشه های بررسی ادراک اخلاق شرکت / نام تجاری - دیدگاه مصرف کننده از اخلاق سازمانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1627||2010||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 63, Issue 3, March 2010, Pages 255–262
This research provides a consumer perspective of corporate ethics. The study consists of twenty long interviews [McCracken, G., 1988. The long interview. Newbury Park, CA: Sage] with general consumers, and conceptualizes potential sources of consumer perceived ethicality (CPE) of a company/brand by investigating consumers' ethical perceptions of business behavior. The developed taxonomy delineates six domains and 36 sub-domains of CPE origin, relating to the impact corporate behavior has on: (1) consumers, (2) employees, (3) the environment, (4) the overseas community, (5) the local economy and community, and (6) the business community. Findings demonstrate disparities between the consumer and the business perspective and highlight the fact that sources of CPE prove considerably more diverse and complex than the literature suggests, therefore presenting a vital extension to existing research. By providing business managers with a comprehensive assembly of issues which may evoke un/ethical perceptions, the framework may serve as a code of business conduct to prevent, contain, or combat negative CPE.
Issues of corporate ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR) increasingly take centre stage in media reporting. The majority of the existing research relating to business ethics and CSR focuses on decision-making processes within companies. Certainly, the business perspective is of great importance, but, further to recent consumer behavior research that has established a link between a company's CSR or ethics and consumer responses (Berens et al., 2005, Biehal and Sheinin, 2007, De Pelsmacker et al., 2005, Folkes and Kamins, 1999, Gürhan-Canli and Batra, 2004, Lichtenstein et al., 2004, Luo and Bhattacharya, 2006, Madrigal and Boush, 2008, Mohr and Webb, 2005, Mohr et al., 2001 and Sen and Bhattacharya, 2001), researchers must also investigate the way that corporate decisions are perceived by the public. Despite a considerable extension of the related research body over the last 10 years, the consumer side is still in need of in-depth exploration (Mohr et al., 2001, Newholm and Shaw, 2007 and Sen and Bhattacharya, 2001). The business perspective of what does and does not constitute ethical behavior may not be congruent with consumer perceptions (Galavielle, 2004), and, as Crane (2005) suggests, companies' knowledge about consumers' ethical beliefs and values is limited. Yet consumers' subjective beliefs and un/ethical perceptions act as sources of attitude formation and may consequently steer buying behavior, to the detriment of some companies. Among the high profile examples are Gap and Nike (sweat-shop and child labor at manufacturing firms in Asia); Nestlé (aggressive marketing of baby-milk formula in Africa); Shell Oil (Brent Spar and the Niger Delta controversy). Subsequent consumer boycotts not only caused severe damage to sales revenues but also–more detrimentally in the long run–harmed the companies' reputations, brand images and, in the case of Nestlé, triggered a spill-over effect to other unrelated product categories and brands in their portfolio (i.e. Nescafé). Yet little is known about the types of behavior that lead to un/ethical perceptions. As Cowe and Williams (2000) point out, it is crucial to understand the kind of corporate behavior that consumers demand. Next to prototypical transgressions such as environmental pollution, child labor and sweat-shop working conditions, what are the business practices and transactions that are judged to be right or wrong and act as sources of un/favorable consumer perceived ethicality (CPE)? The following research set out to address this fundamental question.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
By conceptualizing potential origins of un/favorable CPE, this research contributes a much needed consumer perspective of corporate ethics to the existing literature. Emerging from consumer interviews, the taxonomy delineates six domains and multiple sub-domains relating to the impact corporate behavior has on: (1) consumers (2) employees (3) the environment (4) the overseas community (5) the local economy and community and, (6) the business community. While some of the domains may appear obvious, an adequate consumer framework encompassing all potential sources of negative or positive CPE has been missing from the literature so far, hence the comprehensiveness of the new taxonomy alone constitutes a major contribution. The study demonstrates disparities between the consumer and business perspective and highlights the fact that sources of CPE prove considerably more diverse than the literature suggests. The observed complexity is natural, given the media-driven proliferation of ethical issues over the past few years. Consequently, the developed taxonomy of CPE origin with its 6 domains and 36 sub-domains presents a contemporary perspective and a vital extension to the existing literature, which fails to encompass the broad spectrum of behaviors that may initiate un/ethical perceptions. Further to Crane (2005), who suggests that companies do not have a clear understanding of their consumers' ethical beliefs, and in line with Creyer and Ross' (1997) call for the identification of dimensions along which consumers evaluate corporate ethics, the presented framework provides comprehensive guidance to general managers, brand managers and CSR professionals on the types of activities that may arouse un/ethical perceptions of their company/brand among consumers — a major stakeholder group. Creating awareness of how consumers think and realizing what may or may not evoke negative CPE are crucial. Often, unethical perceptions are at the root of a faltering company/brand image and reputation, with a potentially detrimental effect on consumer attitudes and purchase behavior following in its wake. The domains of CPE origin enable managers to consider key sources of ethical perception relevant to their specific business context and consequently help to address consumers' core concerns via various forms of corporate communications. Larger perceptual incongruence between the company and the consumer may call for more fundamental and strategic steps, such as a re-prioritization of CSR activities. Moreover, the introduction of a code of ethics, or, if one is already in place, a review of existing ethical policies in order to prevent, contain, or combat negative CPE, may be appropriate measures.