برنامه ریزی مدیریت جنگل مانگرو در بافر و حفاظت از مناطق ساحلی، ویتنام: یک رویکرد چند روشی ترکیب سهامداران چندگانه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|26123||2008||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 51, Issue 10, 2008, Pages 712–726
A multiple of stakeholder goals, regarding natural resource utilisation, are integrated into an overall provincial strategic forest and fisheries utilisation decision support system providing a platform for defining tactical forest planning objectives within a 10-year planning horizon. The case study area is a 5362 ha mangrove forest enterprise, divided into a buffer zone and a full protection zone, which has 46 permanent staff, 575 farming households, 450 near-shore fishing families, and 200 landless families. The analyses are based on a modification of the forest management planning package PEB, which incorporates multi-objective (political, economic, and biological) linear programming using a 10-year planning horizon based on stand data. Numerous stakeholders' goals are included in the forest management plan. A revenue of US$ 2.6 million in the 10-year planning period is achieved of which 46% is generated from forestry in the full protection zone, 33% from non-farm forestry, and 21% from farm forestry in the buffer zone. The full protection zone forest has the potential to generate the highest revenue and, therefore, a discussion is made on allowing limited forestry in the zone. If the firewood value is included, the revenues would increase to US$ 3.4 million. Findings suggest that firewood collection for landless, fishermen, and farmers is sustainable and, therefore, ought to be legalized. The value of on-farm silviculture and firewood collection accounts for 10% of net revenues, which can be compared to the other income generators: tiger shrimp (8%), mud crab (6%), sluice-gate fishery (44%), animal husbandry (5%), and off-farm activities (27%). The ecological linkage between mangroves and fisheries provides a major additional gross margin of between US$ 4 and 12 million from fisheries alone. A discussion on the general applicability, strengths, and shortcomings of the system is made.
The multifaceted approach to the management of coastal resources has become known as integrated coastal management . Pernetta and Elder  use the term ‘holistic coastal management’ to emphasise that ‘careful planning and management of all sectoral activities simultaneously will result in greater overall benefits than pursuing sectoral development plans independently of one another.’ Most land-use planning systems rely on designated areas (zones) in which only certain specified activities or land-uses (e.g. agriculture) will be permitted . Zoning is regarded as a proactive mechanism and can be useful in coastal management if plans are regularly updated and development restrictions enforced. This implies that the natural protection provided by coastal mangrove forest systems against seismic sea waves (tsunamis) is a major environmental issue that should be incorporated in sustainable planning, management, and cost–benefit analysis. The socio-economic importance of coastal protection has been clearly illustrated by the recent disastrous tsunami in Indonesia. As populations increase and forest areas decline, protected areas are being demarcated in an attempt to preserve remnants of original flora and fauna. This is problematic where local populations exist within or close to protected area boundaries . Natural resource management in protected areas and buffer zones involves conflicts between environmental protection and economic development . The management of such systems may be very complex. The complexity involves interactions between political, cultural, biological, and economic issues and aspects, which the various actors may perceive highly differently depending on individual perspectives and interests. In a critical review regarding the failure of people-oriented conservation approaches, Wilshusen et al.  conclude that the overall arguments of the approaches' shortcomings are incomplete because they largely ignore key aspects of social and political processes that shape how conservation interventions happen in a specific context. Brechin et al.  contend that ‘focusing on the human organisational process associated with nature protection, the conservation community will necessarily have to reflect internally on the fundamental concepts, methods, and modes of organisation that govern collective action. Fundamentally, both the ‘what’ (the ends) and the ‘how’ (the means) need to be negotiated and applied in this context.’ Conflict is intrinsic to coastal zone management, yet relative few peer-reviewed studies have examined how coastal managers might apply conflict resolution processes in the coastal zone management context . Hjortsø et al.  suggest a rapid stakeholder and conflict assessment methodology for natural resource management in which critical questions are addressed, thereby providing a comprehensive, holistic, and critical understanding of a complex natural resource management situation. Integrated coastal management takes place at two levels: the national and/or regional in which the national goals, and strategies, institutional arrangements, and legislation may be determined and put into place; and the local, or area level, where area specific goals, objectives, plans and their implementation are the focus of attention . Ensuring vertical linkages amongst various hierarchical levels of government (e.g. central, regional, and local) and horizontal within a specific level of a hierarchy such as the local level among local government, sectors, and various stakeholders is considered essential for the successful implementation of the intervention. Billé and Mermet  state that the focus on the local level and the general national framework – at the expense of integration at the regional (provincial) level – can be found in numerous other settings, which may be a great obstacle in implementation of integrated coastal management since the regional level plays a central role in the process. Krumpe and McCoy  argue that successful long-term natural resource management requires a degree of trust between government agencies, private interests, and the public that can be developed through participatory approaches that are truly accessible, responsive, and interactive. Effective natural resource management requires a conviction on the part of those affected by future change that they can influence the process and that proposed management measures are equitable and fair. Without this perception of legitimacy or constituency building there is a strong likelihood that proposed management measures might fail  and . Brechin et al.  propose that the planner should ask the following questions: (i) who benefits?; (ii) should biodiversity be granted moral superiority relative to human welfare?; (iii) is the process considered appropriate and just by those most affected?; (iv) who decides and based on what authority?; (v) who participate and how?; (vi) to what extent is each party holding up its end of the bargain and how effectively are participants perusing their goals?; (vii) how can we systematically adapt and learn from experiences?; and finally (viii) how do wider political economic processes drive local practices? However, before we ask ourselves these more ethical questions it would be highly relevant to have quantitative information, e.g. with regard to the current types (forest, fish, terrestrial animals, etc.) of natural resources on the location affected by planning, their production characteristics (species growth rates, productivity, etc.), current inventory (standing timber volume, fishery stocks, etc.), economic value of resources (US$ kg−1 or m−3), are there ecological links between various types of natural resources and what are their value, etc. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate how the disclosure of stakeholders' goals and conflicts regarding natural resource utilisation planning at the horizontal level of a state forest enterprise may be incorporated into an overall provincial strategic mangrove forest and fisheries utilisation decision support system providing a platform for defining tactical forest planning objectives within a 10-year planning horizon (see Fig. 1).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Simultaneous integration of multiple stakeholders' goals in an overall mangrove forest management planning perspective is performed but the economic consequences of fulfilling all goals are unviable for this 10-year planning period. The annual income generating capacity of the forest resources (US$ 337,000) originates primarily from conservation forest resources in the FPZ (FPZF = US$ 155,000 – 46%) and natural forest resources outside farms in the BZ (BZTF = US$ 110,000 – 33%). Only an annual gross margin generation of US$ 72,000 (21%) originates from forest resources on farms (Table 10). There are high opportunity costs associated with the goals of an even annual cash-flow, volume and man-power, US$ 1.75 million, US$ 1.3 million, and US$ 1.05 million, respectively. As a consequence of this, DARD should consider subsidizing DFE in part of the 10-year planning period and allow limited utilisation of the FPZF. In the following 10-year period, it is estimated that DFE will be able to generate sufficient cash-flow to cover all fixed costs. Legalization of firewood collection should be made as this practice is considered sustainable but only in the BZ as it may be too difficult to control in the FPZ. However, education in low-impact collection practices to farmers, landless, and fishermen is recommended. The scientific findings for R. apiculata yields in Camau Province are 24–410% higher than those disclosed in DFE. This is mainly because DFE stands are not fully stocked. Direct farm household income generation from silviculture in the 10-year period accounts for approximately 3.5% of the average annual household income in DFE – US$ 33 per household per year compared with a total average annual household income of US$ 940. Adding the estimated alternative value of firewood, the total contribution from forestry amounts to approximately 10% corresponding to US$ 99 per household per year. However, the long-term sustainable income potential is two to three times higher due to an uneven age-class distribution dominated by the younger age-classes. The socio-economic value of the mangrove is likely to be more than double of the direct forest product value through the ecosystem linkage with the aquatic production and the effect on fishery. Therefore, the management of the mangroves should be established with consideration of the combined sustainability of timber, aquaculture, fishery production, and protection capacity against seismic sea waves. Given the ecological links of the intertidal mangrove forest with the aquatic ecosystem, a further integration of predicted fishery yields and economic value into an overall forest and fishery management and planning system is highly desirable, especially given the pressure on natural resources. In a broader integrated coastal management perspective, the information derived from use of the planning system is regarded to provide a unique cross-sectoral communicative base between the provincial agricultural, forestry, and fishery institutions and between these provincial institutions and the local level: the forest enterprise, farmers, fishermen, and landless. Thus, the system may be applied as a facilitative devise in defining policies on natural resource utilisation. The total annual income from forestry (including the alternative value of firewood) in DFE amounts to US$ 337,000 compared with a total annual income generation from fishery of marine pelagic species of US$ 900,000, i.e. the income from forestry amounts to about 37% of the income from fishery of marine pelagic species. Due to the relatively low stocking level of the forest resources at present, the long-term potential from forestry is estimated to be two to three times higher. However, these two natural resource sectors should not be viewed as activities that can substitute each other. In order to refine the application in ‘real life’, the forest enterprise needs to improve their registration of forest stands and possibly develop a site index system. Furthermore, it would be highly relevant to strengthen the scientific evidence of Camau mangroves' influence on the aquatic productivity and other valuable ecosystem attributes such as protection against erosion and catastrophic seismic sea waves.