رویکرد برای برنامه ریزی توسعه کارکنان بر اساس مفهوم تقویم فن آوری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|27391||2007||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 105, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 273–281
In the majority of manufacturing systems, human resources are the most expensive but also the most flexible factor. Therefore, the optimal utilization of human resources is an important success factor contributing to long-term competitiveness. In order to meet future requirements, which arise from continuous changes to products and technologies, production enterprises are forced to constantly adapt their human resources with respect to the number and abilities of employed persons. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to define time frames, which allow for at least a rough planning of the needed number and abilities of a workforce. These time frames are determined by the dates when product or technology changes are expected. This already known technology calendar concept has now been enhanced by time frames for personnel development measures. Which worker is suitable for further education and how the respective abilities should be achieved is a subject matter related to the determination of qualitative personnel requirements, whereas the number of needed persons is a quantitative issue. If the required qualifications are to be available at the right point in time, it is indispensable that the necessary qualification measures are defined and scheduled appropriately. The concept, which has been developed here, describes the qualification measures, sorted into target groups, content, qualification costs and time. As a means to meet the personnel requirements arising from continuous changes to products and technologies, the enhanced technology calendar concept will be illustrated by using an application example.
In manufacturing systems, various aspects must be taken into account in order to adapt the number and abilities of a workforce to a continuous process of change. The main influencing factors for personnel development are a changed manufacturing programme, the implementation of new products as well as new manufacturing technologies. However, in the industrial practice, personnel development very often occurs in a reactive way. This means that already existing qualification deficiencies are the trigger for development measures. Consequently, the elimination of personnel bottlenecks occurs reactively, after the adoption of product and technology changes, usually with single, improvized measures. The insufficient integration of personnel in the change process can be regarded as the chief cause for failures during the implementation of product developments and new manufacturing technologies. The approach presented in this paper provides support for the personnel development planning in order to eliminate the mentioned deficiencies of a reactive personnel development. The aim is to avoid the delayed allocation of required abilities and to initiate a personnel development planning which is coordinated with the product and technology changes. In contrast to the usual single stage reorganization of the workforce, the presented approach creates a basis which supports personnel development planning for several development stages of a manufacturing system. For this purpose, it is necessary to define points in time at which certain personnel development measures must be completed in order for the required workforce number and abilities to be available in sufficient time. Considering several points in time for development, it becomes necessary to analyse the development potential of the number and abilities of a workforce for the entire planning horizon.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The technology calendar concept was originally conceived for the coordination of long-term change processes. This concept can also be transferred onto problems arising from a shortened planning horizon in order to cope with demands of a market-driven production with increasing product diversity, shorter delivery times and higher delivery reliability (cf. for an example, Rottinger and Zülch, 2005, p. 52). In order to be able to react quickly to the short-term changes on the sales market, many production enterprises turn to decentralized operational units. However, as a result of a weekly or even daily varying order programme, these decentralized organizational structures are faced with a fluctuating workload. A future research requirement can be seen in the assignment of workers from weakly loaded units to organizational structures with higher personnel utilization as a compensation for a daily varying order programme. Thus, the modelling of weekly or even daily variations in the quantity and type of the order programme, and the support of associated personnel assignment problems, must be undertaken. Building upon this, a systematic procedure, which supports the planning of short-term personnel assignment in decentralized organizational structures, shall be developed. An objective of priority for this procedure is to plan group structures, which, on account of their qualification, are able to exchange workers between the individual, decentralized production units in order to achieve the highest, constant possible personnel utilization, a complete processing of the manufacturing programme as well as low lead times.