ادراک فرهنگ سازمانی، اثربخشی رهبری و اثربخشی شخصی در سراسر شش کشور
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|4019||2007||27 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of International Management, Volume 13, Issue 2, June 2007, Pages 204–230
Perceptions of which facets of organizational culture are related to leadership and personal effectiveness were examined using archival data from Canada, Hong Kong, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Organizational culture was strongly perceived as being related to both leadership effectiveness (explaining 40% of the variance) and personal effectiveness (24% of the variance). Aspects of organizational culture that promote employee fulfillment and satisfaction were uniformly viewed as positively related to leadership and personal effectiveness. The perceived relationship across samples was stronger between organizational culture and leadership effectiveness than between organizational culture and personal effectiveness. The implications of these findings for managers are discussed.
As economies and industries become more global, employees are increasingly dealing with individuals who are dissimilar to them. Likewise, as organizations increasingly create business alliances with organizations whose cultures are dissimilar, employees may work with others who hold different perceptions of what constitutes effective functioning in an organization, and what relationships exist between organizational factors and workplace effectiveness. While it is recognized that organizational culture encompasses both group and individual-level processes, little attention has been paid to the individual-level processes involved in the creation and maintenance of an organizational culture (Harris, 1994), and how those processes and perceptions may be affected by the national cultural context in which organizations operate. This research project utilized the perspective of organizational culture as essentially an individual perception of an organizational phenomenon (van den Berg & Wilderom, 2004), and focused on the perceptions of relationships between organizational culture and organizational outcomes at the individual level. There is evidence in the literature that organizational culture is directly linked to employee attitudes and behaviour (see for example, O'Driscoll et al., 1998), but also that intervening variables may affect the nature of this relationship (see for example, Williams & Attaway, 1996). A greater understanding of the mechanism of intervening variables in the relationship between organizational culture and organizational outcomes may enhance the degree to which it is possible to understand negative outcomes, and intervene to create more positive organizational outcomes. It has been suggested that the recent interest in organizational culture rests on the fact that organizational leaders have the ability to impact the effectiveness of an organization by exercising control over variables related to organizational culture (Marcoulides & Heck, 1993). Accordingly, this research used social cognition, or sensemaking, as an explanatory framework to examine the effect of national culture on perceived relationships between organizational culture and two outcomes: leadership effectiveness, and personal effectiveness.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
7.1. Measurement equivalence Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted in order to determine the extent to which the organizational culture measure was invariant across national samples. Comparative Fit Indices (CFIs), Normed Fit Indices (NFIs) and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximations (RMSEAs) are reported in Table 5. When a discrepancy existed between the indices, the CFI was used as the determinant of fit, as this fit index is considered to be the most relevant to comparison of multiple samples (Cheung & Rensvold, 2002). This fit index indicated a good fit for all samples and all measures.7.2. Overall findings In order to compare the perceptions of organizational cultures in each country, a profile analysis (repeated measures ANOVA) of national group members' perceptions of organizational cultural styles compared overall patterns (Bray et al., 1995 and Tabachnik and Fidell, 2001). Nation (Canada, Hong Kong, New Zealand, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States) served as the between-subjects factor and three clusters of organizational cultural styles (Constructive, Passive/Defensive, and Aggressive/Defensive) served as the within-subjects factor. A profile analysis may be conceptualized as a completely crossed factorial design (Bray et al., 1995), and allows researchers to investigate three aspects of profiles. The first aspect is an assessment of flatness of the profiles, which is equivalent to testing the main effect of cultural styles in a factorial design. The second aspect involves an assessment of levels, or the average elevation, of the profiles for each national category, which is equivalent to testing the main effect of nation in a factorial design. Finally, the question of the parallel nature of the profiles may be assessed, testing the interaction of nation and organizational cultural styles. The main effect of organizational cultural styles resulted in profiles that were not flat, significant using Wilks' Lambda, F(2, 3239) =1386.56, p < .001, η2 = .46. There were significant differences in mean expressed perceptions of levels for different styles, collapsed across nations. The levels test showed differences between nations on the organizational culture styles (F(5,3240) = 47.34, p < .001, η2 = .07) indicating that a main effect for nation existed. The profiles of organizational culture for each nation were significantly different in terms of the degree of expressed perceptions of organizational culture styles as a whole. A post-hoc with Scheffe adjustment indicated that the profile for participants from Hong Kong and from South Africa were unique, and significantly different from the profiles from all other nations (see Fig. 2).An assessment was made using Wilks' Lambda of the extent to which the profiles of organizational culture for each nation were parallel to each other in order to determine if an interaction existed between the main effects. An interaction was found between nation and the styles of organizational culture, Wilks' Lambda = .655, F(10,6478) = 43.24, p < .001, η2 = .06, indicating that while responses related to the levels of the styles differed by nation, the patterns of these responses also differed. The results of the profile analysis, therefore, indicated that in each country, the Constructive cluster of organizational styles was perceived more strongly than the Passive/Defensive or the Aggressive/Defensive clusters. 7.3. Hypothesis 1 To examine if organizational culture styles that encourage employees to believe that they must interact with people or tasks in defensive ways in order to protect their own security and status in the organization lead to negative evaluations of the effectiveness of a leader, leadership effectiveness was hierarchically regressed on the country dummy variables, then on each of the three organizational culture style clusters. As hypothesized, the Constructive cluster positively predicted leadership effectiveness, and the Aggressive/Defensive negatively predicted effectiveness (see Table 6). The equation including only the cultural context was significant, but adding in the organizational culture variables significantly added to the equation's predictive ability, with 40% of the variance in perceptions of leadership effectiveness explained by both national context and organizational culture.Adding the interaction terms to the equation produced a small, but significant increase in the equation's ability to predict leadership effectiveness (ΔR2 = .013, p < .01). Accordingly, post-hoc regression analyses were run for each national context. In each case, the regression equation was significant, predicting between 28% (United Kingdom) and 50% (South Africa) of the variance in perceptions of leadership effectiveness. As hypothesized, the Constructive cluster of organizational culture styles positively predicted perceptions of leadership effectiveness. In five of the national contexts, the Aggressive/Defensive cluster of organizational culture styles significantly and negatively predicted leadership effectiveness perceptions. The only exception to this was the United States, where only the Passive/Defensive cluster of styles was seen as negatively related to leadership effectiveness (see Table 7).7.4. Hypothesis 2 A hierarchical regression was also used to test the second hypothesis, that an organizational culture which causes employees to expect that they must approach their tasks in ways that protect their status and preserve their security are likely to be viewed as negatively related to personal effectiveness. Country dummy codes were entered into the first step, then organizational culture clusters in the second step of the equation. Hypothesis 2 was partially supported in that the Constructive styles of organizational culture were positively related to personal effectiveness. However, contrary to the hypothesis, the Passive/Defensive styles were unrelated while Aggressive/Defensive styles were negatively related to perceptions of personal effectiveness (see Table 8). The equation with national contexts alone was significant, although adding the organizational culture variables into the equation significantly boosted the amount of explained variance, with the full equation explaining 24% of the variance in perceptions of personal effectiveness. Table options The interaction terms, when added to the equation, produced a small but significant increase in the amount of variability in personal effectiveness that the regression equation was able to explain (ΔR2 = .021, p < .01). In order to examine differences between national context and perceptions of the relationship between organizational culture and personal effectiveness, post-hoc within-country regressions were also run. In each case the equations were significant, predicting between 9% (Canada) and 35% (South Africa) of the variance in the criterion. In each national context, the Constructive styles of organizational culture positively predicted perceptions of personal effectiveness. Similarly, the Aggressive/Defensive cluster negatively predicted these perceptions in all national contexts. In five of the contexts, the Passive/Defensive cluster made no unique contribution to predicting these perceptions, although the relationship was in the expected direction. Only in South Africa did this cluster predict (negatively) perceptions of personal effectiveness (see Table 9).