مقیاس انگیزش خریداران دست دوم : سوابق، پیامد ها، و مفاهیم برای خرده فروشان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|4947||2010||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Retailing, Volume 86, Issue 4, December 2010, Pages 355–371
In view of growing interest in alternative consumption channels and critiques of conventional retailing, this study proposes a scale of second-hand shopping motivations. After defining the concept, we present the characteristics of second-hand shopping and explain the importance of a motivation-based approach. Through qualitative and quantitative studies and two data collections carried out in France with 708 subjects, we propose a reliable, valid, eight-factor scale that includes motivations related to products and distribution channels. A second-order hierarchical structure supports the tripartite nature (critical, economic, and recreational) of this form of shopping. Furthermore, the measure reveals, through a typological analysis, four consumer segments: “polymorphous enthusiasts”, “thrifty critics”, “nostalgic hedonists”, and “regular specialist shoppers”. We discuss the applications of this new scale and their implications for both research and retailing strategies
Historically, few studies address second-hand shopping, despite its long tradition in Europe and current expansion in many markets. For example, in France during the past 20 years, various forms of second-hand and used product sales have proliferated (Guiot and Roux 2008). What was once a marginal form of commerce, comprising a few flea markets, second-hand markets, and antique dealers, has become, in both Europe and the United States, a basic trend that makes reselling, recovery, and recycling acceptable. Second-hand shopping consists both of not buying new—a product dimension—, and frequenting channels with distinctive characteristics—a sales dimension. Therefore, we define second-hand shopping as the acquisition of second-hand objects through methods and places of exchange that are generally distinct from those for new products. By adopting a positive orientation toward this form of shopping, we invoke the concept of motivation to identify determinants of a person's actions, including wishes, needs, emotions, feeling, passions, areas of interests, beliefs, life values, fantasies, imaginary representations, personal complexes, conditioning, habits, deep-seated attitudes, opinions, and aspirations. Motivation can support investigations of behavior toward both products (Haire, 1950 and Webster and Von Pechmann, 1970) and retail channels (Tauber 1972). In particular, Westbrook and Black (1985) suggest shopping motivations consist of three dimensions: the wish to acquire a product, the desire to satisfy needs not linked to the product, and the goal of achieving certain ends independent of the actual purchase. In this framework, second-hand shopping motives encourage consumers to prefer the informal, ludic atmosphere of certain channels and look for unique and original products (Belk et al., 1988, Gregson and Crewe, 1997a, Gregson and Crewe, 1997b, Sherry, 1990a and Sherry, 1990b). Prior studies of second-hand shopping cite two reasons for the growth of this market. The economic rationale relates to declines in purchasing power of middle classes since the 1980s (Williams and Paddock 2003). A recreational explanation instead focuses on the characteristics of certain channels as the basis for their appeal. For example, second-hand markets provide various and unpredictable offerings, visual stimulation and excitement due to the plethora of goods, the urge to hunt for bargains, and feelings of affiliation and social interaction (Belk et al., 1988, Gregson and Crewe, 1997b, Sherry, 1990a, Soiffer and Herrmann, 1987 and Stone et al., 1996). In general, prior studies provide observations about particular features and advantages of the channels rather than identifying any precise motivations for this form of shopping (Bardhi and Arnould 2005). Nevertheless, they demonstrate that second-hand shoppers’ motives are not exclusively financial, that is, i/ that the channels provide sources of direct interest to shoppers, and ii/ that economic and recreational motivations are interwoven. i/ On the first point, second-hand objects may be sought for their unusual character, rarity, or geographical, biographical, or historical origins (Kopytoff 1986). This finding fits with anthropological conclusions about collections (Belk 2001) and suggests a theoretical framework for the value associated with old objects and their potential for nostalgia. In particular, Belk, Wallendorf, and Sherry (1989) identify a contamination process by which people make tangible and maintain the sacred character of certain objects through their recollection. A used object does not necessarily invite comparison to an equivalent new product, nor is its appeal solely a matter of price. The affective dimensions associated with acquiring this kind of object instead make a comparison with a new product meaningless to the purchaser. ii/ With regard to the second point, access to second-hand products comes through various channels that satisfy a wealth of motivations better than can traditional retail channels. For example, some consumers prefer to stroll around outdoors, rummage through bins, hunt for items unavailable in traditional channels, engage in discussions with sellers, bargain, and so on (Belk et al., 1988, Gregson and Crewe, 1997a, Sherry, 1990b and Stone et al., 1996). Finally, in their qualitative exploration of motives for shopping second-hand, though not validated, Bardhi and Arnould (2005) note the links of hedonic and economic aspects. Some studies suggest that for such shoppers, second-hand acquisitions offer a genuine alternative to conventional channels, sometimes inspired by criticisms of traditional channels (Sherry, 1990a, Soiffer and Herrmann, 1987, Stone et al., 1996 and Williams and Paddock, 2003). In turn, we attempt to develop and validate a measurement scale of the motivations for second-hand shopping, linked to both the acquisition of used objects and the channels in which they are available.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Research implications The proposed second-hand shopping measurement scale captures a variety of motives that underlie a specific form of shopping and do not depend any more on contextualized approaches to certain channels. Our contribution thus incorporates three dimensions of motivations that apply to both the products sought and the channels that sell them. These results enrich previous studies in several respects. First, the proposed scale offers a validated measurement tool for assessing second-hand shoppers’ motivations, across many possible combinations of products and channels and the potential variety of motives that guide these shoppers. Second, in addition to the economic and recreational motives, we uncover an underlying factor that has not been measured before, namely, the critical dimension toward the conventional market system. This critical attitude is manifested as distancing and avoidance behaviors toward the classic market system, as well as ethical and ecological concerns that consumers express with regard to recycling and anti-waste. Third, the strong correlations across the critical, economic, and recreational dimensions confirm that they are extensively interwoven (correlations range from 0.47 to 0.68). The scale thus clarifies motives whose combination, rather than their opposition (Bardhi and Arnould 2005), might cause dissatisfaction with traditional forms of retailing, as noticeable in the polymorphous enthusiast segment. It is thus appropriate to investigate possible consequences of an array of motives that overlap. This scale also helps characterize profiles of consumers who are reflexive with regard to the functioning of the retail system as a whole and capable of finding alternative shopping solutions (Holt, 2002). For example, further research should examine the influence of expertise and perceived risk on second-hand shopping behaviors, including the effect of guarantees offered by the product and/or sales channel. Moreover, our contribution suggests several research avenues, in conjunction with recent retailing challenges. Firstly, in terms of perceptions of prices and fairness, it is important to evaluate the predictive character of the critical and economic motivations for second-hand shopping in relation to preferences for brands in conventional stores (Sinha and Batra 1999), discount chains, and specialist second-hand chains. A more systematic study should consider the relations between the second-hand shopping motivations, especially the critical dimension, and different manifestations of resistance, such as brand boycotts, downshifting, and voluntary simplicity (Dobscha and Ozanne, 2001, Peattie and Peattie, 2009 and Schor, 1998). The explicit mention of second-hand shopping among simplifiers’ practices suggests the need to test these links more extensively (McDonald and Oates 2006). Moreover, with regard to store visits, the findings might be useful for testing customer loyalty and sensitivity to promotional campaigns. As retailing literature suggests (Dawson, Bloch, and Ridgway 1990), it would be interesting to discover the repercussions of satisfaction or dissatisfaction at the point of sale on the formation of motivations to shop second-hand. Secondly, the relations between second-hand shopping motivations and browsing and impulse buying also suggest comparisons, especially for specific product categories (e.g., CDs, books), of purchasing processes in traditional versus second-hand stores. In addition, the importance of recreational motivations provides an implicit invitation to use the scale to evaluate shoppers’ reactions to specific features of certain retail outlets, including the way they present products. It would be interesting to test the nature of the links between such settings and shoppers’ scores on the hedonic/recreational dimension of the scale (Mathwick et al., 2001 and Mathwick et al., 2002). Similarly, noting the importance of the nostalgia dimension, especially for hedonically motivated consumers, it seems worthwhile to test how nostalgic associations might be aroused by and in relation to different types of outlets. For comparative purposes, studies might include second-hand stores, discount stores, and conventional stores with second-hand departments. The proposed scale also could guide the design of Internet sites dedicated to second-hand products and identify those elements likely to arouse nostalgia in the virtual domain. Considering the possibility to use the scale at a disaggregated level, the possible links between the nostalgic dimension alone and the concept of perceived market authenticity could also be explored (Trilling 1972). In general, our measurement scale can support tests of the relevance of new retailing concepts, according to the profiles of the shoppers targeted, both in conventional retailing and the second-hand marketplace. Different motivation levels would suggest choices to be oriented according to the greater or lesser sensitivity of shoppers to economic, critical, or recreational arguments, thus informing appropriate store designs, advertising, pricing or promotional policy. We therefore note some managerial implications for retailers. Retail implications This study first suggests the potential of a new strategy, based on the role of prices and information, for competition between new and second-hand sectors. The growing share of used goods trading shifts the frame of reference away from a clear-cut division between economic formulas and recreational stores, as propagated by the wheel of retailing theory (McNair 1931). By building both two forms of advantage, second-hand retailers blur the distinction. New goods retailers therefore need to recover customers who oscillate between the new and second-hand markets. According to our qualitative study, some shoppers gather information in new channels but buy in second-hand markets, whether for financial reasons or because they view them as more stimulating, especially in terms of their originality, nostalgia, social contact, and treasure hunting motives. Among second-hand shoppers, the dominance of polymorphous enthusiasts (28.5%) suggests a “silent exit” from mass retailing that traditional retailers can no longer ignore. For certain product categories with high perceived risk, such as household appliances, computers, or televisions and audio equipment, the threat of second-hand competition might not be as acute. Because information in the second-hand market often consists only of sellers’ inconsistent claims (Akerlof 1970), traditional retailers should focus on and provide extensive information to purchasers of such goods. Furthermore, tactics designed to help purchasers make decisions and enhance their trust, such as technical documentation and guarantees, are fundamental. Retailers should put forward three strategic arguments: the reliability of products, especially in terms of health and safety; their compliance with technical standards; and their resulting durability and reduced likelihood of malfunction. In addition, warrantees, which are largely absent in used goods sectors, should be offered for risky products. To acknowledge the connection between the two sectors, retailers also should adjust their pricing policies. The qualitative study revealed that new product prices often serve as a benchmark for assessing the utility of a used item. Traditional retailers, in setting their prices, therefore might consider second-hand price levels and rationally establish the real perceived value of new articles. This approach responds to both competition and demand, estimated by comparing the attributes of a new article with those of a similar, second-hand product. Consumers’ sensitivity to waste and recycling offers another area for strategic reflection. Waste and the “throw-away” society have provoked counterreactions, such that consumers search for functional objects at the best price or for used objects that can fulfill a function through repair or restoration, which in turn becomes highly gratifying. Restoring and personalizing recovered objects is a consumption trend, as exemplified by “do-it-yourself” projects and publications—something that critical sociologists were noting 30 years ago (Baudrillard 1998). Similarly, the “shabby chic” movement is on the rise. A contemporary illustration involves repairing old furniture by repainting it or altering its original function creatively (e.g., using a garden bench as a living room table). Such trends can provide new retail concepts offering both newly produced articles and original products resulting from the restoration of used objects for sale. In view of these new ecological concerns, some French retailers have also introduced policies to support the collection of, for example, used batteries and drink packaging, which they will recycle for consumers. Traditional retailers also begin to extend second-hand sections and organize swap meets or trade-in events. For example, Decathlon, a specialist sporting goods retailer present in 14 countries, has introduced such a policy to help people sell their used sport equipments and buy new ones in its stores. The leisure sector seems especially well suited to such events, which might appeal to a substantial number of shoppers. By attracting private sellers, such retailers would thus help their customers to earn revenue that they may be more likely to spend in the store subsequently. Furthermore, with regard to the customer segments, we recommend that second-hand retailers apply our measurement scale in questionnaires to obtain a clearer profile of their consumers. Different standard profiles would emerge from breaking down the shopping motivation scores by level, threshold, globally, and/or by dimension. In turn, retailers could determine a retailing mix to appeal to their own customer segments. For example, to attract polymorphous enthusiasts and nostalgic hedonists, retailers could adopt two approaches. First, those that specialize in second-hand products could emphasize the pleasure of hunting around and the experience of visiting the store rather than price. Advertising messages might focus on the shopping expedition as an adventure or opportunity to spend time with friends or family (Arnold and Reynolds 2003). Second, in terms of product mix, retailers could arouse a sense of nostalgia with products such as vinyl records, films, toys, books, and other items associated with childhood and adolescence. Although the second-hand sections of conventional retailers currently attract few shoppers (27.1% of our sample), new product retail channels could take advantage of this appeal. More specific actions also might increase market penetration among polymorphous enthusiasts. As Kwon and Lennon (2009) find, with regard to the reciprocal effects of retailers’ multichannel strategies, putting a catalog online and advertising promotions can create greater synergy between physical retail outlets and Web sites. This type of complementarity is well suited to second-hand stores and antique dealers, which could stimulate browsing and prompt treasure-hunting motivations by encouraging visits to the store. Nostalgic hedonists could be attracted by regular swap meets in specialist second-hand stores whereas thrifty critics could be interested in second-hand articles as complements to regular new products. Several video game retailers already use this tactic, hosting both new and used sections. Customers can return items they have purchased for a store credit or cash, which they are likely to spend on obtaining more recent products. This practice thereby ensures rotations in both the new and “recycled” product mixes. These implications overall demonstrate the interconnection between new and second-hand markets, as well as the potential for new independent actors and major retail groups to adapt their existing shopping centers or launch new sites that feature new products and second-hand items side by side. Such a system would tend to attract all the second-hand segments this study identifies. Limitations