ارزیابی استراتژیک کاندیدای پروژه های مهندسی مجدد فرآیند کسب و کار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|417||1997||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 50, Issues 2–3, 16 June 1997, Pages 261–274
The evolution from a focus on product design to one on process and product design in improving organizational competitiveness has included the development of a field of study called business process reengineering (BPR). BPR is an organizational development tool that requires a number of stages of analysis, design and implementation. The literature in the past few years has provided a number of tools and techniques to aid in BPR efforts. One area in this relatively new organizational change philosophy that has not received much attention is the selection or prioritization of a set of candidate business processes or projects that should undergo reengineering. Since business processes by definition are elements of a broader strategic system, the candidate evaluation and selection process must be strategically oriented. To aid in this evaluation process a strategic multiattribute evaluation and justification framework and methodology is presented. The methodology includes an activity based analysis and linkage of traditional (financial) and strategic considerations. The evaluation methodology may also have implications for post-implementation evaluation of BPR projects and other phases of BPR.
The seminal works of Davenport and Short(1990) and Hammer and Champy (1993) have helped advance the evolution of organizational improvementsfrom a focus on product-based competitionto one that incorporates both product andprocess oriented strategies. Their works formallyintegrated many business improvement philosophiesfrom the fields of industrial engineering,information technology and organizational devel-opment into the area of business process improvementand reengineering (BPR).BPR was needed to help organizations go beyondthe standard total quality management philosophiesof incremental improvements to radicalimprovements. This philosophy was driven by increasedglobal competition where major improvementsin business processes were required merely toachieve competitive parity. The process of BPR iscurrently undergoing various refinements, since noone approach may be applicable to all environments.Tools to aid in the BPR process are stillbeing developed. These tools range from evaluation,design and analysis, to those that aid inimplementation and review of BPR projects. BPR,which has for the most part been viewed as anoperational set of events, needs to be viewed asa strategic program. The BPR toolset needs tosupport this strategic view.BPR will have short- and long-term implicationsfor an organization. In addition, any process that isto be reengineered will not only have an impact onthe function that has direct control over that process,but other functions that will necessarily supportthe reengineered process. These two characteristicspoint to a strategic change for theorganization. Thus far the technology and tools to aid in the BPRprocess have focused on what occurs to the processafter it has been selected for reengineering.Evaluation of which project to select or pursuefor reengineering has not received much attentionin the literature. Whether the processes to be reengineeredare the “core” or supporting processesmakes little difference. Which process or set ofprocesses to select for reengineering implementationwill depend on factors that are strategic, operational,tangible and intangible. Simple cost/benefitand financial analysis criteria may be inadequatefor such strategic analysis.In this paper, a methodology and supportingframework for evaluation and selection of processesfor BPR implementation is presented. A briefbackground on the BPR literature related to selectionof processes/projects for reengineering setssome foundation. The methodology is detailedalong with an illustrative example. A discussion onthe methodology and related conclusions and extensionscompletes the article.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
We have shown a technique that can be used asa framework to justify business process reengineeringprojects from a strategic perspective. The useof the SJET methodology in this example is relativelygeneral in scope. A limitation of the methodologywhen actually put into practice is that itmay require significant resources. But, an evaluationof BPR projects which may have a cost impactof millions of dollars to an organization, isa necessity.A number of prerequisites need to be in place forthe effective usage of this methodology. This tool is only one step in a larger process of enterprise engineeringincluding developing strategy, changing theorganization, implementing projects, and monitoringthese projects, which are all closely related tomaking a business case. Additionally, systems fordevelopment of performance measures and metricswithin an organization will aid this methodology.Yet, performance measurement systems are relativelywanting in most organizations. Without an appropriate organizational management infrastructurein place, a justification alone will not guarantee success of BPR project adoption by anorganization.Additional methodology requirements includethe development and use of appropriate tools forestimation and analysis. An advantage of thisframework is its allowance for the inclusion andintegration of a number of decision tools and techniques.For example, the results of the methodologymay be analyzed using various capitalrationing models, where more than one project canbe selected limited by budget constraints. In addition,with only slight variations in the parametersused in the methodology, it can be used to identifywhich processes will require reengineering, select appropriate technologies to support the reengineeringprocess, and monitor performance.