روش کارت امتیازی متوازن برای ایجاد یک ارزیابی عملکرد و مدل رابطه ای برای هتل های چشمه آب گرم و بر اساس یک مدل MCDM ترکیبی شامل DEMATEL و ANP
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|387||2011||25 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 30, Issue 4, December 2011, Pages 908–932
The balanced scorecard approach is an effective technique for performance evaluation. For more accurately reflecting the dependence and feedback problems of each factor in real world situations, here a new model is developed using a balanced scorecard approach for evaluating the performance of hot spring hotel. A DANP hybrid MCDM model is adopted to solve the dependence and feedback problems, while establishing a performance evaluation and relationship model. An empirical case study is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid MCDM model. Based on this study, the perspective between ‘learning and growth’, ‘enterprise's internal processes’, and ‘customer’, all aim for solid financial performance as the ultimate goal, and report a positive influence. This effective performance evaluation model developed by applying the hybrid MCDM enables business managers to understand the appropriate actions and achieve a competitive advantage.
In general, natural hot springs are comprised of geothermal water, containing minerals, gases, and certain elements that rise from underground via a vent. Hot spring pools, used for bathing, contain a combination of cold and hot water, gases and geothermal elements, and are thought to benefit human health. Taiwan is located in the juncture of the Eurasian Plate and Philippine Plate. The area has abundant hot spring resources, with varying chemical characteristics, scattered across the island. Every hot spring site has unique local features arising from its relationship with the local geology. Hot spring hotels are those hotels located in hot spring resource areas, where visitors can enjoy the hot springs, while having access to lodging, food services and social contact. They differ from ordinary hotels and resorts primarily due to the services associated with the core product of hot spring bathing (Hsieh, 2007). Europe has a long tradition of visiting hotel spas to obtain medical benefits. In recent years, regular hoteliers have recognized the benefits and increased revenue that a spa facility can bring (Thorsteinsdottir, 2005). In 2009, the annual number of inbound travellers to Taiwan was around 4.4 million. The major recreation activities of such visitors were shopping (86.81%), visiting night markets (72.75%) and historical sites (57.19%), ecological tourism (29.77%), attending exhibitions (26.33%), visiting lakes (25.74%), and hot spring tourism (24.22%) (Taiwan Tourism Bureau, 2010a). Furthermore, hot spring tourism comprises 4.4% of the leisure activity of domestic tourists (Taiwan Tourism Bureau, 2010b). However, hot spring tourism has recently become fastest growing sector for both domestic and overseas visitors in Taiwan. This has naturally attracted the interest of the hot springs hotel industry. Not only has there been heavy investment in the construction of spa hotels, but also a significant increase in the development of hotel facilities centred on allowing guest to enjoy the hot springs. Taiwan's hot spring hotels have entered a mature stage. However there is still much variety in the operating style and business strategy of hotels in different areas, with spa products mainly as a subsidiary. As a consequence, product homogeneity is too high and market competition intense, which often makes it difficult for management to distinguish themselves from the pack and gain market share. In recent years, drastic fluctuations in the global economic and financial environment have resulted in changes in the marketplace. As for all companies in the hospitality industry, the sales of hot spring hotels are highly contingent upon market change. To grow and become profitable amidst global competition, they have to enhance their performance across the board, addressing key questions such as: What is the current health of the industry and the interrelation between key indicators of performance assessment? If they can identify the major factors that will enhance the performance of the hot spring hotel and develop strategies accordingly, it will be possible to excel in a highly competitive market. Successful performance results from goal achievement and project implementation (Wu and Hung, 2008). Methods for assessing performance evolve along with advances in technology and growing market demands. The tools which companies use to evaluate their own performance should offer some predictive qualities concerning future performance. Such tools should lead them to the most likely future and help translate strategies into action. Among all the performance assessment indicators, the balanced scorecard approach, proposed by Kaplan and Norton (2004) as a performance management system for strategic mapping, can best translate strategies into tangible goals and measurements. In structure it consists of strategic management tools related to both financial and non-financial indicators. One part of the tool evaluates the results of past efforts; while the other aimed at future assessments. There are many factors that impact the performance of hot spring hotels. These factors can be summarized and classified into different constructs and then condensed into a smaller number. This new list of factors acts as an effective reference for decision-making. Therefore, in this study, the balanced scorecard approach, which has been widely adopted as a performance indicator, is applied to measure the performance of hot spring hotels. In the management of hot spring hotels, one wants to not only know which factors affect performance, but also understand the degree of influence of each factor, and which sub-factors affect these factors. The purpose of this study is to create a better framework for decision-making for this type of management evaluation. The balanced scorecard approach, developed by Kaplan and Norton (2004), is adopted for this purpose with Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) employed for the performance evaluation. There is a causal relationship between the four perspectives involved in this approach (Sim and Koh, 2002, Banker et al., 2004, Davis and Albright, 2004 and Wu and Hung, 2008). The aim is to determine which sub-factors influence the four perspectives and their corresponding sub-factors, with the goal of establishing a more comprehensive performance evaluation framework for hot spring hotels. The relationship between each factor and its sub-factors is considered. With this methodology we are able to consider multiple criteria at the same time. It also helps the decision maker to estimate the best choice, by sorting a limited number of cases according to their characteristics. The sub-factors for the four perspectives are found by collecting and analyzing data. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique is then used to confirm the relationship between various perspectives, to enhance our understanding of the complex issues related to performance. A network-relationship map (NRM) of the performance of the hot spring hotel is prepared, which, combined with the DEMATEL-based Analytic Network Process (DANP) helps to measure the mutual importance of each factor. However, the ANP method deals with normalization in the supermatrix by assuming that each cluster has equal weight. Although this method for normalizing the supermatrix is easy, it seems irrational to assume equal weights, because of the different degrees of influence of the criteria (Ou Yang et al., 2008). Our strategy is to utilize a hybrid MCDM model that combines DEMATEL and ANP to solve the dependence and feedback problems, thus more accurately reflecting real world situations. With this in mind, we develop a framework to consider these factors by combining the graph-theory based DEMATEL method with an ANP approach (hereafter DANP). An empirical case based on real hot spring hotels is also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the hybrid DANP MCDM model. This method offers a more complete decision-making model especially designed to solve performance evaluation problems for hot spring hotels.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
As noted above, in this stage of maturity, hot spring hotels at many hot spring sites are faced with increasing market competition. Due to restriction on development in hot spring areas, mostly such hotels are small or medium sized. They are often at a disadvantage in comparison to large hotel chains in terms of products, pricing and promotions. Large fluctuations in the economic and financial environment can make it difficult to make a profit or achieve growth. The balanced scorecard approach discussed in Section 2.2 proposes four performance evaluation perspectives, but it does not explain the relative weight of the sub-factors, the degree of influence of each factor and which sub-factors will affect these factors. It is advantageous for the management of hot spring hotels to realise the relative weights of the factors and sub-factors for performance evaluation. Therefore, in this study, we develop a performance evaluation and interrelation model for hot spring hotels. Analysis of survey results is utilized to provide and prioritize the factors necessary to improve and to develop a strategy map that can be used as a reference for the industry. According to the results of DANP, the top six criteria or key factors that can enhance the performance of hot spring hotels are defined. Based on the strategy map developed by Kaplan and Norton (2004), we formulate a strategy map designed to enhance performance. It is hoped that this can assist hot spring hotels to maintain competitiveness.