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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|8058||2011||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Systems Engineering Procedia, Volume 1, 2011, Pages 457–464
CPU manufactures have been adding more cores to CPU's instead of only focusing on increasing the speed. There are many interesting questions regarding implementation and performance of algorithms using the new CPU's. We look at three well known meta-heuristic algorithms with different ratios between independent calculations and shared memory usage and analyze the benefits of using multi-core CPU's compared to single core CPU's. By programming specifically for multi-core processors, the performance of meta-heuristic algorithms can be improved without much effort, but the improvement is heavily dependent on the system architecture and the ratio between independent calculations and shared memory usage.
Many real life problems are large NP-hard problems and thus for nontrivial instances it is almost impossible to find the best solution in a reasonable amount of time. Meta-heuristic algorithms are often used to get a good solution in a decent amount of time but they do not guarantee an optimal solution. Meta-heuristic algorithms have become ever more popular during the recent years in part due to the computer revolution . Meta-heuristic algorithms are fairly easy to implement in a single core environment, i.e. one CPU (Central Processing Unit) using integrated cache memory and random access memory (RAM). The cache memory is integrated in the CPU and is faster than the RAM memory which is connected to the CPU through a bus (a high speed channel) which is much slower than the CPU. Though meta-heuristic algorithms are easy to implement on single core computers they often run rather slow, especially on personal computers, though modern PCs are more powerful than many supercomputers through the years. To get better performance more focus has been put into parallel computing. Parallel computing is where a problem is broken up into smaller entities and two or more entities are being worked on at the same time. In parallel computing there are two prevailing inter-processor communication methods; shared and distributed memory models . In shared memory systems a collection of homogenous processors share the same main memory through busses (or crossbar for more than four processors). Symmetric multi-processors, SMP, are an example of a shared memory model and many consider that chip-level multi core processors belong to this model. Distributed memory systems are on the other hand comprised of more than one heterogeneous stand-alone machines, each with its own central processor unit and memory set, connected together through a high speed network. Good examples of distributed memory systems are Beowulf clusters .The two main APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) for the shared memory model are POSIX threads  and OpenMP , while for the distributed model the MPI (Message Passing Interface) is by far the most commonly used . Both the shared memory and the distributed memory models have their advantages and disadvantages. When porting a sequential code to a shared memory model, parallelizable code needs to be identified and written again in APIs such as OpenMP. This can introduce complications such as race conditions, deadlocks or other problems often accompanied with shared memory models. It is even more complicated to write code for distributed memory models, since it usually involves writing efficient algorithms to divide tasks among processor and memory sets and then synchronizing the results. The distributed model is often limited by slow network speeds and thus each task needs to be large enough to overcome the network latency. On the other hand, distributed systems are more scalable; adding more processors to such a system often simply involves adding another node (computer) to the current environment whereas doing so on shared memory systems increases the bus traffic and slows down memory access. In some cases it even requires expensive and complex hardware changes maybe involving investing in a completely new system with room for more processors. In 1965 Gordon Moore wrote an article for Electronics magazine titled “Cramming more components onto integrated circuits”  where he predicted, often called Moore’s Law, that the number of transistors on a chip would double each year into the foreseeing future. His prediction has, more or less, come true over the years. Around the year 2005 chip makers were having trouble with increasing the performance of chips; the small size of the transistors were causing heat and power issues. The answer was adding more cores on the same die, which gives a significantly better performance while only increasing power usage by a small percentage. This essentially threw the problem of ever increasing speed on to the software engineers but so far not many programmers have been utilizing this technology to any extent. In recent years, tools and support for parallel programming have been added to many software languages, such as Java, C++ and C#, giving programmers better opportunities to use the full power of the modern CPU without spending too much time in training and/or refactoring . Since the burden of increasing speed is on software vendors, operating systems have to be scalable and use multi core technologies, today many operating systems are not optimized for multi core CPUs which can have an effect when writing multi core algorithm implementations . There are not many meta-heuristics papers focusing on multi core architectures. Bui, Nguyen and Rizzo Jr.  showed results where the running times of an Ant Colony algorithm improved by around 40% with a dual core system and by a factor of up to 6 on a eight core system. In this paper we will take a look at how to increase performance with multi core architectures and try to identify potential pitfalls along the way.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this paper we looked at three different algorithms and three different multi core implementations. First we looked at the delightfully parallel implementation which means that the whole algorithm can run on a single core with no dependencies to other cores, this design pattern gives a solid performance gain as long as the computations being performed are relatively time consuming. The second multi core implementation can be described as a shared memory implementation with almost no locking mechanisms but with time consuming computations on each core. Finally third implementation that was looked at can be described as a shared memory implementation depending heavily on locking mechanisms and relatively little computations on each core. The third algorithm was also implemented without the locking mechanism; it was for the most part the same algorithm apart from the locking mechanism. After implementing and testing the three algorithms it is quite evident that using the parallel toolkits available in the high level languages can give a drastic performance increase. In many cases it does not take much work to implement the parallel code but it has to be done carefully and the CPU architecture does matter a great deal as can be seen in the results for both the Ant Colony and Tabu Search algorithms. Locking mechanisms can also play a large role, both Ant Colony and Tabu Search algorithms use one memory structure between cores but where no locking mechanism was required for the AC implementation it had considerable effect on the parallel implementation of Tabu Search on computer B. The critical aspect of parallel implementation is the memory usage. If the parallelization of the algorithm increases the memory requirements so that the CPU cache in no longer sufficient, then the multi core algorithm might run even slower than a single core implementation of the same algorithm.