نقشه برداری ویژگی های ساختاری فرایند تولید و ترکیب محصول
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|13390||2008||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 111, Issue 2, February 2008, Pages 713–728
The description and classification of production capabilities, referring to the kind of product mix that can be produced in a given type of facility, is a fundamental task in analyzing production strategy and economics. In practice, however, the concepts of product structure and process structure have been hard to operationalize since there are no generally applied measurement scales or indices to capture the degree of standardization or customization of products, for instance, or to characterize the configuration and type of control of a production line. The objective here is to provide a systematic approach for analyzing production capabilities, or productabilities for short, by mapping the structural properties of production process and product mix with a set of quantitative indicators acknowledging the different levels of reference (actual operations, existing or planned resources, and strategic intentions) as well as the disciplinary perspectives of marketing and manufacturing management. The new mapping method is illustrated in the context of the product–process matrix by Hayes and Wheelwright which links the two dimensions of productability and their alignment to the performance-oriented measures of production capabilities, such as productivity of plants or profitability of products. The use of the mapping method is demonstrated with some illustrative numerical examples of productability analysis and a case study of an individual firm. Further development and testing of data collection in the context of industrial surveys and statistical studies are discussed.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The mapping of production capabilities, or productabilities, proposed here is a step towards finding descriptive quantitative indicators for both product structure and process structure. The mapping method employs multiple indicators per the two axes of the product–process matrix including organizational and strategic features in addition to operational indicators and manifested structures. It supports comparisons of units regardless of the industry or process type under study, thereby giving decision makers a better understanding of alternative manufacturing operations and capabilities. The use of the tool is essential not only for strategic-level discussions on core competencies but also for benchmarking: it is important to compare performance to production units with similar product–process choices instead of benchmarking against any well-performing unit or company. Moreover, the paper illustrates the use of the mapping tool in different manufacturing environments from job shops to continuous flow production for better understanding of its possibilities and limitations. Already Hayes and Wheelwright (1979b, p. 129) considered the product–process matrix as an excellent tool for understanding potential problems between manufacturing and marketing. Together with the proposed set of indicators the product–process matrix allows managers to further systemize and extend their intuition on the nature and strategic differences of manufacturing operations. Furthermore, in addition to strategic planning processes (e.g. Fine and Hax, 1985) the product–process matrix can now be used when checking if the unit of analysis is used for the purpose it has been planned. The productability analysis is useful also when assessing and comparing plants and production lines for manufacturing strategy, subcontracting alternatives, different structures of supply chain, networks of facilities and/or companies, and production competences of industries or clusters for international comparisons.