پیامدهای مقررات زدایی و آزاد سازی بر صنعت خدمات لجستیک در PDR لائو
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1394||2010||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 128, Issue 1, November 2010, Pages 68–76
This study analyses the development of the Lao freight logistics sector with a special focus on factors influencing freight logistics services efficiency after the processes of liberalization and deregulation of the economy. Based on empirical data, the study focuses on two main dimensions of the Lao freight logistics sector: (i) the development of a private freight logistics sector since the formulation of the New Economic Mechanism (NEM) that progressively opened the Lao economy to the world; (ii) the Lao freight logistics sector's awareness of opportunities and challenges arising from Lao PDR's participation in ASEAN, GMS and hopefully the WTO in the near future.
Since the launch of market reforms during the late 1980s, Lao PDR has shown a strong record of economic growth. Economic reforms in Lao PDR started at a major scale in November 1986, when the New Economic Mechanism (NEM) was adopted and major steps towards transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy were taken (World Bank, 2008). Under the NEM, the Lao government announced measures to promote the development of the private sector. It deregulated price, production controls, and granted managerial and financial autonomy to state-owned enterprises. These reforms, together with Lao's participation in the Association of South East Asian Nations1 (ASEAN) and its free trade area ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) cooperation program under the auspices of the Asian Development Bank and its willingness to become a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), have created a challenging environment for all types of business activities, in particular for local firms. The objective of this paper is to: (i) provide an overview of factors influencing the efficiency of the domestic market for freight logistics within the context of an economy in transition towards market economy with large geographical constraints and challenging institutional changes such deregulation, liberalization of the economy and increased integration with neighboring countries; (ii) analyze the development of the Lao freight logistics sector with a special focus on the demand for freight logistics services. Based on empirical data, the study focused on two main dimensions of the Lao freight logistics sector by studying the development of a private freight logistics sector and its components with a particular focus on components within the logistics industry influencing the level of efficiency and to study the Lao freight logistics sector's awareness of opportunities and challenges arising from Lao PDR's participation in ASEAN, GMS and the WTO in the near future. The first part of the paper propose a framework for how to analyze the national logistics system and its components from a efficiency perspective, the second part of the paper seek to map the development over time and provide a report of the current status of the Lao freight logistics sector with special reference to the transition towards a market economy, while the last part tries to explore more long-term consequences on the local freight logistics sector as a consequence of increased integration with regional and international markets (Table 1).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Private freight operators provided an interesting perspective to the MPWT and DCTPCs capacity to formulate transport or logistics related policy and regulations. There is a strong “gap” in terms of understanding and trust between government institutions and the private operators. This “gap” also exists within the private freight operators themselves based on the level where they operate i.e. international, national, provincial and district level. Competition and low levels of coordination between trucking companies on national and provincial levels are weak and thus strongly affect final delivered price. There is another “gap” between clients and the local service providers. The Lao Chamber of Commerce (representing the local clients) does not consider that the industry is very competitive because it is a very small market, with a limited number of players who know each other and collude on prices. In contrast, truck operators argue that the domestic trucking industry is very competitive and that tariffs relatively low—barely covering fuel cost. However, the larger operators complain that small operators with limited numbers of trucks are able to compete on the basis of paying lower taxes as a consequence of operating in areas where the tax collecting authorities are weak. Small operators located in the provinces providing freight services from remote located provinces to the capital of Vientiane are also able to receive backhauling on the return trip from Vientiane to the origin. There smaller provincial operators are able to spend time waiting in Vientiane with the purpose to receive return freight. Larger freight transport operators providing freight services in the opposite direction e.g. from Vientiane to the provinces rarely receive backhauling as freight demand in this direction is limited. The larger operators based in Vientiane complain about barriers to entry on the provincial markets. These “gaps” do not support the sustainability of the Lao freight logistics industry. There are pressures to open up the domestic Lao freight market based on regional agreements when in reality the industry is at an infant stage and still needs to be developed. This infant industry is not trusted by its local clients, while the overseeing governmental agencies lack the capacity to understand what their current needs are. The future looks very uncertain for the local freight logistics industry. The experience of Lao PDR can provide an interesting insight on how local logistics services are perceived and affected through increased regional and global integration in a former command type economy. Lao PDR is not alone in experiencing such structural changes with many countries in Central Asia under similar types of constraints. The only difference is that Lao PDR is at a more advance stage in its accession negotiation to the WTO and therefore must liberalize its market quick.