چگونه شرکت های کوچک باقی می مانند؟ مطالعه تطبیقی مهارت های بازاریابی و زیرساخت تدارکات عمده فروش های کوچک و بزرگ
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1460||2012||12 صفحه PDF||24 صفحه WORD|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Business Review, Available online 8 November 2012
ادبیات موضوع و فرضیه سازی
مهارت های بازاریابی: توسعه روابط و خدمات
تعهد به اعضا
برنامه های کمکی
برندهای قدرتمند و مجموعه ها
تدارکات: حرکت فیزیکی کالاها
امکانات و ارتباطات تدارکاتی
موجودیت و برگشت محصول
هزینه های موخر افزایش یافته
جدول 1: طبقه بندی صنعتی براساس حوزه
3-3- مهارت های بازاریابی: متغیرهای مستقل
جدول 2: مشخصات عمده فروشان بزرگ، متوسط و کوچک
4-3- تدارکات: متغیرهای مستقل
جدول 3 : نتایج تحلیل عوامل و قابلیت اطمینان
عملکرد: متغیر وابسته
جدول 4 آ : تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه رابطه بین عوامل مهارت های بازاریابی و تدارکاتی و عملکرد عمده فروشان کوچک
جدول 4 ب : تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه ارتباط بین عوامل مهارت های بازاریابی و تدارکاتی و عملکرد عمده فروشان بزرگ
جدول 5 : تحلیل MANOVA از تعیین کنندگان عوامل مهارت های بازاریابی و تدارکاتی عمده فروشان کوچک دربرابر عمده فروشان بزرگ
محدودیت ها و مطالعات آینده
ضمیمه تحقیق 1
Most wholesalers are small family-owned firms that frequently lack marketing skills and an infrastructure capable of setting into practice state-of-the-art marketing distribution systems. They are much more consumed with daily activities and credit and collection functions than they are with developing marketing skills and logistics networks. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify the elements of marketing skills and logistics that are associated with the performance of small and large wholesalers, and to compare and contrast these variables. Data were collected from 4500 small and large wholesalers in Hyogo and Osaka prefectures in Japan. Multiple regression analysis of this study found that the factors of supplier's financial assistance and buyer's services to wholesalers explained the performance of small wholesalers, and the factors of supplier's service to wholesalers and buyer's service to wholesalers explained the performance of large wholesalers. Multivariate analysis of variance and multiple discriminant analysis revealed that large and small wholesalers differed with respect to supplier's services to wholesalers, the supplier's financial assistance, and the wholesaler's intra logistics activities. Implications are discussed.
Most wholesalers are small family-owned firms that frequently lack marketing skills and an infrastructure capable of setting into practice state-of-the-art marketing distribution systems. They are not forceful marketers because of their size, their capital, their know-how, and their traditional outlook. In fact, they are much more consumed with daily activities and credit and collection functions than they are with developing marketing skills. They have a myopic vision as they do not plan and forecast sales, and do not analyze opportunities, threats, and trends (Rawwas, Konishi, Kamise, & Al-Khatib, 2008). Marketing for most small wholesalers is equivalent to selling; the emphasis is on transformation of inventory into cash, on generation of sales volume, on short-run answers, on the complications of individual customers, and on the significance of daily routine. A large body of literature suggests that the lack of marketing skills for many small wholesalers has hindered their growth and placed them at both organizational and economic disadvantage with large ones whose economies of scale are massive (Heady, Maples, & Greco, 2005). The second area of growing concern for small wholesalers is their economic disadvantage in operating efficient logistics systems. Large wholesalers, using state-of-the-art logistics facilities, integrating fleet and routing systems and applying contemporary supply chain management practices, can decrease their ordering and carrying costs to about 15% of total sales (Operations Management Roundtable, 2001). Considering only the cost savings achieved from improving their distribution systems, including scheduling and routing costs, these companies average savings from 20 to 30% of the total cost of transportation of goods (Operations Management Roundtable, 2001). Owners of most small businesses realize that as the big companies get bigger they are falling further and further behind as the effects of “economies of scale” set in (Heady et al., 2005). So, if small wholesalers lack marketing skills and logistics infrastructure, how can they possibly survive? There are several theories that may answer this question. The theory of duality argues that small firms provide different economic function than their larger counterparts and therefore do not directly compete with them (Audretsch, 1995 and Audretsch et al., 1999). The theory of strategic niches adds that by strategically occupying a market niche, small firms can avoid directly competing with their larger counterparts (Caves and Porter, 1977 and Porter, 1979). The concept of dynamic complementary further explains that small firms potentially have greater flexibility and closeness to the customer, though lacking economies of scale, scope, and learning (Nooteboom, 1994). The interpretation is that small firms may have the edge on customizing their services and goods by concentrating on low-volume niche markets and may seek out less important markets to avoid confrontation with their larger counterparts. Porter (1979) and Caves and Porter (1977) suggest that the activities of large and small firms may differ within the same industry and are not homogeneous. According to the theory of strategic niches, small firms may exhibit good levels of profitability by occupying less important product niches that are inaccessible or not lucrative to their larger counterparts. Small firms may produce goods or services that are distinct from those manufactured by large firms. Porter (1979) and Acs and Audretsch (1990) suggest that such differences permit smaller firms to seek out and maintain distinct product niches which may enable them to experience reasonable rates of profitability for prolonged periods of time. The purpose of this exploratory study, therefore, is to achieve twofold objectives: first, to identify some of the marketing skills and logistics factors that are associated with the enhancement of the performance of small and large wholesalers. Second, to compare and contrast identified factors of both small and large wholesalers. The rest of the paper is organized in this fashion. In the next section, the conceptual background and the theoretical basis are described. Drawing upon prior research in strategy, supply chain and marketing, relationships are hypothesized. The next section describes the methodology and empirical analysis. The final section concludes with a discussion of the implications key results from the analysis, limitations and directions for further research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In support of Hypothesis 1, results showed that the performance of small and large wholesalers was positively associated with marketing skills factors. The factors of “the supplier's financial assistance,” and “buyer's services to wholesalers” explained 12.8% of the performance of small wholesalers. In other words, small wholesalers would have better performance if suppliers provided them with financial assistance, and retailers offered them trust, loyalty and efficient communication. The factors of “the supplier's service to wholesalers” and “buyer's service to wholesalers” explained 14.1% of the performance of large wholesalers. In other words, large wholesalers would have better performance if suppliers provided them with power brands, assortments, and assistance programs, and retailers offered them trust, loyalty and efficient communication. In support of Hypothesis 2, results revealed that large wholesalers valued marketing skills more than small wholesalers did. Marketing skills factors explained 14.1% of the performance of large wholesalers versus 12.8% of the performance of small wholesalers (see Table 4a and Table 4b). This proved that small wholesalers lacked vision as they were much more consumed with daily activities than they were with developing and acquiring marketing skills (Rawwas et al., 2008). In support of Hypothesis 3, the factors of “the supplier's service to wholesalers” and “the supplier's financial assistance” were rated higher by large wholesalers than did by small ones (see Table 5). In other words, large wholesalers valued marketing skills of suppliers including power brands, assortments, assistance programs, and financial assistance more than small wholesalers did. Again, this proved the myopic vision of small wholesalers and their lack of marketing skills. Contrary to Hypothesis 4 and Hypothesis 5, results showed that none of the logistics factors, “wholesaler's intra-logistics activities” and “the wholesaler's inter-logistics activities” explained the performance of small or large wholesalers (see Table 4a and Table 4b). In other words, large and small wholesalers did not feel that JIT, supplementary logistics, increased costs absorption, product returns and availability, and logistic communication and facilities would improve their performance. Sometimes, organizations take for granted the accessibility of resources or the establishment of business systems and do not realize their value such as the utilities including electricity, water and gas, and in this case, the logistics systems. In support of Hypothesis 6, the factor of “wholesaler's intra-logistics activities” was rated higher by large wholesalers than was by small ones (see Table 5). In other words, JIT, supplementary logistics, increased costs absorption, product returns and availability, and logistics communication and facilities were ranked higher by large wholesalers than did by small ones. Small wholesalers exist mainly because there are many small suppliers and small retailers who might require less service (Stern et al., 1996). The theory of strategic niches asserts that by occupying a market niche of serving small suppliers and small retailers, small wholesalers can afford to be less efficient (Porter, 1979), and consequently, modestly rank these logistic services.