پیاده سازی لجستیک معکوس به عنوان یک ابزار پایدار برای خرید مواد خام در کشورهای در حال توسعه : مورد ونزوئلا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1466||2013||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 141, Issue 2, February 2013, Pages 582–592
This study aims to analyze and understand the benefits that acquiring raw materials through the application of reverse logistics can generate, especially in developing countries. An empirical study has been carried out in the handmade sector of five municipalities in the state of Mérida, Venezuela, into the contingency factors of reverse logistics (information and communication systems, total ownership costs and life cycle of products), as well as the effect of uncertainty. A case study methodology was used to test the effect of the independent variables on the “raw materials purchasing” variable, and involved the technique of stepwise multiple regression. The results reveal that the preference for purchasing raw materials through reverse logistics is mainly determined by the “uncertainty” variable, contingency factors of “information and communication systems” and the “life cycle of products”. According to the results, firms in the handmade sector should implement an information system and be in constant communication with their customers, who play a dual role as buyers of their products and as input suppliers, therefore, greater contact can help reduce uncertainty. Handmade sector workers make products with a long average life cycle and, therefore, with greater chances of being reused, restored, repaired and to finally be subjected to recycling. National and local authorities should encourage the application of reverse logistics in other productive sectors, such as manufacturing, agriculture, services, as it can reduce the problem of acquisition of production inputs and mitigate environmental damage caused by the production of raw materials.
Following the Second World War, production of raw materials in industrialized societies grew significantly. More recently, demand has continued to increase but in a different way, since consumers' tastes have become more individual and refined. Thus, at the beginning of the 21st century, the quantity and variety of manufactured and consumable articles is of such magnitude that the damage to the environment, such as from pollution and the generation of solid waste, make it ever more unfeasible to maintain this pace of production and consumption. Recently, two phenomena have emerged that are making this problem even worse: these are obsoleteness and disposable products, leading to excessive consumption in order to promote economic growth and employment, as in the opinion that “the faster things are used and can be thrown away, the faster the economy will grow” (Brown, 2003:178). One of the most important factors associated with the generation of waste is that of raw materials used in the production of goods and services. In this context, reverse logistics is a business management tool that can contribute to reducing the problem of obtaining raw materials for production and, furthermore, mitigate environmental deterioration caused by waste (Srivastava, 2007). It thus becomes a key strategy for business competitiveness (Autry, 2005). The above is especially relevant in the case of developing countries, where, in addition to the environmental problem, there are factors arising from structural difficulties with their economic system. This makes it necessary to experiment with new methods and alternatives to overcome these factors (El-Hamouz, 2007, Aye and Widjaya, 2006, Joseph, 2006 and Ahmed and Ali, 2004). In this context, the present study carries out an analysis of the handmade sector of a developing country, like Venezuela, with the aim of determining the potential of using a system of reverse logistics, as well as highlighting the main facilitating and limiting factors. The method used is that explained by Welch et al. (2011), specifically, one of “contextualized explanation”, an “emerging alternative” which considers that given the heterogeneous nature of causation in social sciences, it is necessary to assume that generalizations are not universalities. To begin with, reverse logistic literature is reviewed and its role and importance in waste management. Afterwards, starting from the definition of contingency factors in the application of reverse logistic programs, the principal hypotheses of this work are put forward. Following this, the empirical study is described and the main results are analyzed, and finally the main conclusions and recommendations are given.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Raw material purchasing through reverse logistics can be a feasible way to reduce the generation of waste in developing countries. Along these lines, this paper explores the variables that make a significant contribution to raw material purchasing by handmade sector workers in five municipalities of the State of Mérida—Venezuela: Libertador, Santos Marquina, Rangel, Campo Elías and Sucre. “Uncertainty”, “management information system” (MIS) and “product life cycle” (PLC) variables help explain the model for raw material purchasing with 21.6%, 31.4% and 27.4% respectively. This indicates that to carry out an environmental program for raw material purchasing, the implementation should be mainly based on the variables: “management information system” (MIS), being the most important; followed by the “product life cycle” (PLC) and “uncertainty” associated with the products and the materials to be returned. Management of information system (MIS) is especially recommended for production control, invoicing, product delivery, raw material reception and accounting areas. Whereas the significant contribution of product life cycle (PLC) to the model refers specifically to the duration of the products; where the raw materials are purchased; how they are obtained and the main variables considered when purchasing (quality, price, quantity and delivery time). Handmade sector workers make products with a long average life cycle (more than five years, more than three years and over a year) and, therefore, with greater chances of being reused, restored, repaired and to finally be subjected to recycling. As for uncertainty, it is one of the dimensions in reverse logistics that makes a significant contribution to the model, which is specifically shown, in the quality, quantity, delivery and inspection times of the products, parts or components that can be returned. To reduce uncertainty in the quality of by-products, production waste, packaging, boxes and containers and disused products and materials that reverse logistics can be applied to, they should undergo a detailed inspection when being processed, from the time they are received until the delivery of the “new product” to the customer, ensuring that delivery times are met with the least possible delay. Permanent contact with customers is recommended to reduce uncertainty as to the quantity of products and materials appropriate to be subjected to reverse logistics, as well as using some method of prediction for by-products and waste. In addition, handmade sector workers are advised to keep an extra inventory (backup inventory) to mitigate uncertainty in terms of quantity and delivery times of the products and materials processed under reverse logistics. However, total cost of ownership (TCO) is not included in the multiple linear regression equation and, thus, is not a relevant contingency factor in the model for “raw material purchasing”. On the other hand, in accordance with the proposal by Welch et al. (2011), as far as the conclusions from this work can be considered to be derived from a case, we have to question the assumption of causal homogeneity made by positivist research traditions and to take into account that a single variable may have a very different effect, depending on the configuration of variables with which it is combined in a case. Along these lines, it is evident that Venezuelan businesses currently have to work under certain conditions that limit the free market and that are different from those in other countries, not only in more developed countries but also neighboring ones, such as Colombia, Brazil and others. Among these conditions, we can point out the nationalization of companies that are dedicated to activities that the State considers strategic, the control of foreign exchange and the law of fair costs and prices. The nationalization of companies is a measure that aims to expropriate organizations, that supposedly, produce goods and services the government considers are strategic. This measure limits the possibilities for some productive sectors to carry out new investments and innovation for fear of being expropriated. Foreign exchange controls have been in force since 2003 and limit the free exchange of the official currency, the Bolivar, with currencies circulating in other countries. This restriction means that businesses have to ask for authorization from the national government to import raw materials and inputs necessary for production and subsequently they have to again request the national government to change the official currency into currencies commonly used in international trade (US dollars or Euros). Furthermore, when a company exports its products to other markets, it has to hand over the currency generated from its sales to the national government, who will exchange them into the national currency so that the company can reinvest the money in its production process. Finally, the law of fair costs and prices comes into force at the end of 2011. Although initially the costs incurred by businesses are studied under this law, its real objective is to control the profits obtained by businesses from the sale of their products and services in the market thus leading to the elimination of price competition. These conditions of limited competitiveness in Venezuelan markets mean that the conclusions drawn from this study should be compared with other geographical contexts distinct from Venezuela to find out whether there are differences in the results obtained. In the same way, the handmade sector presents a series of specific characteristics that means it would be necessary in the future to test our model in other productive sectors with the aim of determining if the results could be generalized.