برقراری ارتباط از طریق تلفن: دیدگاه های یک گروه از مردم که به اختلال لکنت زبان مبتلا هستند
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|33463||1999||19 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Fluency Disorders, Volume 24, Issue 4, Winter 1999, Pages 299–317
A study of the use of and attitudes towards the telephone by persons with stuttering impairment is presented. Data was collected by survey (postal questionnaire). Results indicate that making calls may be more problematic than answering them. Avoidance-like behaviours were more prevalent amongst younger adult stutterers than their older counterparts. Severe stutterers use the telephone least. Many stutterers surveyed see telephoning as being more problematic than ‘face-to-face’ communication and give a range of reasons for this. Telephoning difficulties can have wide ranging effects. Some implications of these findings are discussed.
Speech and language therapists frequently find that people presenting with stuttering impairment report increased difficulties in specific situations. One of these is using the telephone. In 1995, 95% of U.K. households contained a telephone (Social Trends, 1996). There is a rising trend towards telephone banking, insurance, helplines, and other telephone-based services. In 1998 it was reported that 1.1% of the U.K. workforce were employed in the telephone services industry, more than in the coal, steel, and car-making industries combined (Fernie & Metcalf, 1998). The increasing use of the telephone as a social and business communication tool suggested to us the importance of investigating the impact of the telephone upon people who stutter. There is some literature to support the notion that the telephone is rated as a feared situation by people with stuttering impairment. As early as 1957, Trotter and Bergman compared stutterers' and non-stutterers' reactions to different speech situations using the Stutterer's Reactions to Speech Situations scale of Johnson, Darley, and Spriesterbach (1942, revised 1963). They found that although, overall, stutterers wished to avoid speaking situations more than the non-stutterers, the ranking in terms of which situation was to be avoided did not vary between the two groups except where use of the telephone was involved, this being ranked higher by the stuttering subjects. Although it is possible that the relative novelty of the telephone as a means of communication in 1957 might have had some bearing on this outcome, more recent studies have also supported the claim that the telephone is problematic for stutterers. Leith and Timmons (1983) sought to evaluate stutterers' reactions to the telephone as a speaking situation. Of the 130 subjects questioned, 72% placed making a call in their top three most feared speaking situations, this figure rising to 88% for severe stutterers. They also asked subjects to rate different types of call in terms of associated fear. Calling a younger person or a peer of the same sex were rated as the least feared telephone situations. A further six situations including calling a peer of the opposite sex or different ethnic group all received equal, slightly higher weightings. There were minor variations in response between subjects of different ethnic group and gender. Other sources, though not presenting analyses of the stutterer's potential fear of the telephone nevertheless do indicate that problems exist. Doughty (1990) describes a case study in which hypnosis was used in an attempt to alleviate a stutterer's fear of the telephone, and Lee, McGough, and Peins (1976) discuss the desensitisation of stutterers to the telephone using relaxation techniques. Silverman (1977) suggests that, in severe cases, stutterers could consider using a Telecommunications Relay Service, a system designed primarily for the deaf in which text is relayed via an operator to another party. “Anti-stuttering” telephones are available which incorporate Delayed Auditory Feedback devices which can aid fluent speech. The existence of such services and products supports the notion that indeed the telephone can be problematic for stutterers. Although suggesting that the telephone is a potential source of difficulty for stutterers, the question of which specific aspects of telephone conversation might give rise to these has not been addressed within the literature. Telephone talk provides a distinct situational setting (Drummond & Hopper, 1991) which allows only verbal and paralinguistic cues Drummond & Hopper 1991 and Schegloff 1979. Specific communication situations and settings can provide problems for stutterers, both in terms of increased stuttering frequency and, more particularly, in terms of anxiety and avoidance behaviours. Clinicians, aware of the variability in dysfluency across differing situations, generally seek to assess stuttering in a variety of ways (e.g., Wells, 1987). In addition, schedules may be used to assess stutterers' attitudes to various speaking situations (e.g. S24, Andrews & Cutler, 1974). The reliance on speech and the inability to augment what is being said with nonverbal cues is also likely to be problematic. Results of Kaasin and Bjerkan's study (1982) suggested that stuttering may be more likely on critical words. In a discussion on the controversy surrounding ‘information load’ explanations of stuttering, Bloodstein (1995)(p. 291) offers a novel interpretation in response to the criticism that stutterers are highly likely to stutter on words which are familiar to them. Bloodstein suggests that at points of low predictability in spoken sentences, that is, points of high information load, there is a high level of uncertainty both for speakers and listeners. He points out that stutterers may find it far easier to ask for something, in a store, for example, if they are first able to indicate nonverbally what it is that they want, thereby easing the information load and shifting the burden of ‘communicative responsibility’ away from themselves. It is this option which is precisely not available when making and receiving telephone calls; at moments of uncertainty, the speaker alone, and with speech alone must bear the responsibility for supplying the missing information. In addition, Rutter (1987) suggests that telephone talk is more likely than ‘face-to-face’ talk to be task oriented. Where specific information needs to be given or requested, not only is information load greater, the opportunities for employing covert behaviour such as circumlocution are reduced. Unlike much “face-to-face” intercourse, telephone conversations are generally dyadic (Schegloff, 1968) and have definite beginnings and ends which are marked not only technologically by the act of connection and disconnection, but also by the frequently highly scripted nature of the opening and closing sequence Drummond & Hopper 1991 and Ryan, Anas, Hummert, & Laver-Ingram 1998. These features may cause difficulties for people with stuttering impairment. It has already been indicated that the specificity of telephone talk may be problematic. The same applies to introduction which is very frequently required in telephone opening, and to scripted forms such as ‘May I speak to so and so?,’ ‘Hello, so and so speaking’ etc. The combination of the highly defined beginnings of telephone calls, their generally dyadic nature and often specific content, anticipation as the telephone rings and the need to start speaking at the moment the call is answered contrive to make using the telephone a potentially hazardous task for those with stuttering impairment, and one exacerbated by the fact that, should blocking difficulties arise, their interlocutor may be unclear as to what is happening. There is evidence, therefore, to suggest that telephone use may be a source of difficulty for people with stuttering impairment and an examination of the nature of telephone discourse points to several features which may give rise to this difficulty. In addition, the prevalence of the telephone as a means of communication suggests that inability to use it effectively may lead to significant communicative handicap. The purpose of this paper is to address the following questions: 1) What are the telephoning habits of a specific group of people with stuttering impairment, and is the demographic profile of individuals within this group likely to influence these habits? 2) What are this group's own perceptions of the ways in which telephone talk differs from ‘face to face’ talk, and what do they consider to be the associated problems and advantages? 3) What do this group perceive as being the effect of any telephoning difficulty upon their own lives? This paper presents data related to these questions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The qualitative treatment of the data collected in the course of this investigation has revealed interesting findings which suggest further research. Results indicate that telephoning may indeed be a problematic speaking situation for some people with stuttering impairment, particularly those in early adulthood or whose stutter is severe. There is evidence to suggest that some stutterers may find making calls more problematic than answering them. Respondents' own perceptions of the differences between ‘face-to-face’ and telephone interaction reflect some of these aspects and broad themes are apparent, but results also serve to highlight the heterogeneous nature of stuttering difficulties even when subjects are drawn from a limited population such as is the case in this study. Many of the factors which were perceived as a cause of difficulty bear relation to broader aspects of stuttering impairment, for example, the role of anticipation and interlocutor presence; further investigation into these aspects is warranted, particularly the differences between making and answering calls. Our findings support the contention that inability to use the telephone effectively may form a serious communicative handicap for some stutterers; the effects of telephoning problems have been seen to be far reaching, impinging upon social life and career. The challenge to identify and develop effective therapeutic approaches to telephoning problems is therefore apparent.Johnson Darley Spriesterbach 1963, Kaasin Bjerkan 1992 and Trotter Bergman 1957