مهندسی مجدد امور بانکی با مدل های شی گرا : به سوی سیستم های اطلاعاتی مشتری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|416||1997||19 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Information Management, Volume 17, Issue 3, June 1997, Pages 179–197
The banking sector is demanding re-engineering due to changes in economic setting, consumer needs and market competition and requires a redesign of current accounts-oriented information technology systems to customer-oriented systems. The paper argues that object-orientation provides the needed transparency and consistency between the models of business systems and the models of IT systems and adopts the use of object-oriented methods as a basis for redesigning banking business processes and information systems. The paper reports the findings of a research project that dealt with the development of the Banking Reengineering with Object-Oriented Modelling (BROOM) method for the coupled redesign of business and information systems and gives the results of an application of the method to a bank.
The banking sector is undergoing significant changes in economic needsand market competition. Although it is hard to forecast the details ofsuch an evolution, it is clear that it will demand an emphasis on increasedflexibility in marketing of different product mixes, greater branch autonomyand shortening of 'time-to-market' new products; see e.g. BoUenbacher. 1 Information technology (IT), on the other hand, plays a crucialpart in the provision of banking products and services; see e.g. Metzgerand Rau 2 and Cressey. 3 IT investments are one of the well-recognizedkeys of competition in the banking sector, while IT cost reaches highscores in relation to operating expenses. In addition, quality, securityand risk assessment are vital characteristics of the sector and of its informationsystems; see e.g. Ramani and Pavri 4 and Dutta and Doz. 5Existing banking systems, practically always home-grown, remain huge and cumbersome, requiring intensive maintenance and lacking inflexibility. On the other hand, the investments already made in existingsystems cannot be discarded and constitute a typical 'legacy' drag. Asignificant issue is the need to manage 'customer-oriented' rather than 'accounts-oriented' systems. Contrary to the emerging business needsfor client-orientation, the majority of current banking IT systems adoptan account-oriented approach, thus limiting the flexibility of bankseither to create strong links with existing customers, or to attract new ones with increased marketing efforts. These considerations demonstratethe practical need for a re-engineering of both the banking businessprocesses and the associated information systems; see Watkins 6 andMaull and Childe. 7Considering the development of business models for banking informationsystems design, some general conceptual models of data and processes have been developed and constitute 'kernels' of applications('designware'). These models are usually built using traditional methodologiesand antedate modern approaches to the design of informationsystems and especially the object-oriented approach. Although, however,the IT profession is constantly improving its understanding of howobject-oriented development can support the business process re-engineeringventures for business transformation, few financial institutionsare, today, ready to tread this path. This is in contrast to other domains;see e.g. Murthy and Wiggins 8 and Wang. 9This is due to the specific business requirements of the banking businessas well as the need to explicitly provide mechanisms for the encapsulationof legacy data. However, we argue that object-orientation providesthe needed transparency and consistency between the models of businesssystems and the models of IT systems. Object-oriented approaches seemto have the potential to encapsulate legacy data and processes that arealready described in existing information systems applications, and treatthem as a primitive variety of objects that can be associated to newobjects and progressively replaced. Such an approach can apparentlyoffer an opportunity to break the 'legacy deadlock' with its associatedmaintenance burden. The present paper adopts the use of object-oriented methods as a basisfor redesigning banking business processes and information systems.Specifically, the paper reports the findings of a research project thatdealt with the development of the Banking Re-engineering with Object-Oriented Modelling (BROOM) method for the coupled redesign of businessand information systems and gives the results of an application ofthe method to the banking sector.The paper is structured in the following manner. The next sectionoutlines the major trends and the need to redesign the bankingsystems, as well as the need to re-engineer the information systemsof banks with a customer-oriented emphasis. The BROOM method, that enhances the expressive power of the object-oriented approachand further extends its business modelling abilities by representingthe inherent business logic is outlined followed by a case-study applicationof method and redesign of a specific banking process. Thefinal section gives some concluding remarks and directions for furtherresearch.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
As it can be deduced from the abundance of case studies and the realneeds of businesses, business process re-engineering is here to stay andwill become increasingly important as a way for corporations to remaincompetitive. Process orientation, combined with contributions from IT,can yield tremendous performance improvements within companies.The focus of business process re-engineering on the "process" conceptputs forth the need for consistent methods and techniques for thecapture, representation and performance assessment of businessprocesses.Such considerations are especially critical for the banking business, since banks also need to manage the transition of their costly legacysystems to modern Customer Information Systems (CIS). Therefore,what is needed is a simple, yet powerful, way to model both the informationsystems and the business part of a process in a unique manner.To implement such a view, the paper discussed the use of object-orientationfor modelling the agents of a business process in terms of objectsand representing the dynamic behaviour of objects through the messagepassing and concurrent execution of these objects within a process.However, the object-oriented modelling approach needs to be extended in order to add framework relations and cover the specificities of thebusiness domain. The BROOM method was presented to satisfy thisneed. The use of the method added to the dimensions of the objectorientedmodel a suite of business-oriented issues, such as metrics, customer-orientation, etc. The method was applied to a re-engineering effortofamedium-scale bank and lead to significant results in terms ofdecrease of duration ofprocesses; elimination of non-value addingsteps; and reduction of manual tasks.The process changes within the re-engineering effort proved that theapproach developed here generates advantages in a 2-fold manner; firsta tight integration of dynamic information modelling aspects with business redesign issues (such as client-orientation and customer satisfaction,workflow co-ordination, productivity enhancement, etc.) is guaranteed;and second, quality improvement in modelling the business processes isenabled by supporting better control of modelling issues and enhancingthe understandability of processes by process workers.