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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|682||2011||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 38, Issue 12, November–December 2011, Pages 14460–14477
Benchmarks are vital tools in the performance measurement and evaluation of computer hardware and software systems. Standard benchmarks such as the TREC, TPC, SPEC, SAP, Oracle, Microsoft, IBM, Wisconsin, AS3AP, OO1, OO7, XOO7 benchmarks have been used to assess the system performance. These benchmarks are domain-specific in that they model typical applications and tie to a problem domain. Test results from these benchmarks are estimates of possible system performance for certain pre-determined problem types. When the user domain differs from the standard problem domain or when the application workload is divergent from the standard workload, they do not provide an accurate way to measure the system performance of the user problem domain. System performance of the actual problem domain in terms of data and transactions may vary significantly from the standard benchmarks. In this research, we address the issue of domain boundness and workload boundness which results in the ir-representative and ir-reproducible performance readings. We tackle the issue by proposing a domain-independent and workload-independent benchmark method which is developed from the perspective of the user requirements. We present a user-driven workload model to develop a benchmark in a process of workload requirements representation, transformation, and generation. We aim to create a more generalized and precise evaluation method which derives test suites from the actual user domain and application. The benchmark method comprises three main components. They are a high-level workload specification scheme, a translator of the scheme, and a set of generators to generate the test database and the test suite. The specification scheme is used to formalize the workload requirements. The translator is used to transform the specification. The generator is used to produce the test database and the test workload. In web search, the generic constructs are main common carriers we adopt to capture and compose the workload requirements. We determine the requirements via the analysis of literature study. In this study, we have conducted ten baseline experiments to validate the feasibility and validity of the benchmark method. An experimental prototype is built to execute these experiments. Experimental results demonstrate that the method is capable of modeling the standard benchmarks as well as more general benchmark requirements.
A benchmark is a standard by which something can be measured or judged. A computer system benchmark is a set of executable instructions to be enforced in controlled experiments to compare two or more computer hardware and software systems. Hence, benchmarking is the process of evaluating different hardware systems or reviewing different software systems on the same or different hardware platforms. A web search service benchmark is therefore a standard set of executable instructions which are used to measure and compare the relative and quantitative performance of two or more systems through the execution of controlled experiments. Benchmark data such as throughput, jobs per time unit, response time, time per job unit, price and performance ratio, and other measures serve to predict price and performance and help us to procure systems, plan capacity, uncover bottlenecks, and govern information resources for various user, developer, and management groups (Anonymous, 1985). Examples are the TREC, TPC, SPEC, SAP, Oracle, Microsoft, IBM, Wisconsin, AS3AP, OO1, OO7, XOO7 standard benchmarks that have been used to assess the system performance. These benchmarks are domain-specific in that they model typical applications and tie to a problem domain. Test results from these benchmarks are estimates of possible system performance for certain pre-determined problem types. When the user domain differs from the standard problem domain or when the application workload is divergent from the standard workload, they do not provide an accurate way to measure the system performance of the user problem domain. System performance of the actual problem domain in terms of data and transactions may vary significantly from the standard benchmarks. Performance measurement and evaluation is crucial in the development and advance of web search technology. A more open and generic benchmark method is needed to provide a more representative and reproducible workload model and performance profile.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this research, we have accomplished four main tasks. First, an analysis framework of web search and benchmark literature to lay the basis of generic construct development is developed. Our aim is to collect all related literature on the classic web search algorithms and the benchmark methods. We collected and compiled the key web search algorithms and the benchmark methods summarized to be representative. Secondly, a set of heuristics to formulate the generic constructs of web search algorithms are presented. Generic constructs are extracted from the main web search algorithms and the benchmark methods. We analyzed the algorithms and find the essential constructs. For instance, PageRank is based on inlinks and outlinks of the page so these become the key components of the algorithm where the web page” is a generic construct and the “tag” is the operation of the generic constructs. Thirdly, a more representative and reproducible workload model of web search is created. The generic constructs of a web page is extracted into the page model. The generic constructs of the search types are extracted into the query model. Designed as such, this benchmark meets the desired characteristics of scalability, portability and simplicity. Fourthly, a computer-assisted benchmarking process is implemented in a prototype system. The prototype system is designed to help prove the feasibility and validity of the research method. In this research, we have described a detailed approach to model workload requirements from the user’s perspective. This results in a more realistic environment of workload representation, transformation, and generation. We have delineated the main components of the method. They include the workload specification scheme, the scheme translator, and the data and operation generators. The method is domain-representative and workload-representative because we model from the user problem domain and characterize from the user application. The benchmark method is scalable because we can scale up or down the problem size and the problem complexity by changing the data definition and the operation definition via specification. It is reproducible because we use a high-level specification scheme to describe the general workload requirements. The method enables a custom benchmark where users can control the execution through requirements specification instead of manual manipulation.