بررسی اجمالی از آخرین مواد و فن آوری روسی، فعالیت های R & D مربوط به ITER و ساخت و سازDEMO
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|10268||2007||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volumes 367–370, Part B, 1 August 2007, Pages 1298–1304
An overview is given of the activities and major achievements within recent R&D performed in Russia on materials and technologies for ITER and DEMO. In Russia, the basic materials manufacturing and technologies have been selected for ITER, for two reference DEMO breeding blanket concepts and for the related long term R&D. The review on the recent results of investigations on low activation materials (V–Ti–Cr alloys, Fe–12Cr–2W–V–Ta steel EK-181), beryllium and superconducting materials is presented. The fabrication of tubes, sheet and other forms from low activation materials is mentioned. The activity in beryllium materials both in the domestic studies and international cooperation is outlined. The progress in enhancement of the properties of superconducting materials for the ITER magnet system is presented, and the prospect of further developments in superconducting materials for DEMO magnet system is analyzed.
The strategy of development of atomic energy for Russia includes the creation of industrial fusion reactors. That is why the ITER and DEMO projects are necessary and important steps toward the incorporation of fusion energy in the energy system of Russia. The development and use of high technological low activation, creep resistant and irradiation resistant structural materials in fusion reactors is of primary importance for the attainment of safe and ecologically acceptable fusion energy plants. The development of superconducting materials for fusion reactor magnet systems of also plays a principal and decisive role for providing fusion energy plant competitiveness. The complex of research on the development of low activation materials, beryllium materials and superconducting materials must be treated as a high technology area of material science. Main objectives of the RF research program are the development of low activation and beryllium materials and the appropriate technologies. These will create a sound base for the participation of Russia in the realization of international projects on the development of experimental breeding blanket modules of DEMO reactor and to provide the technical basis for the realization of the national conceptual project DEMO-RF.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In Russia the development of low activation high performance structural materials, beryllium and superconducting materials for application in ecologically acceptable fusion reactors is of primary importance. In the RF the most promising compositions of vanadium based alloys have been chosen, the industrial scaled technologies for fabrication of V–4Ti–4Cr ingots and the different products such as plate, sheet, rod and tube have been proposed and their testing have been successfully initiated. R&D on low activation ferritic–martensitic steel Fe–12Cr–W–V–Ta (EK-181) has reached the stage that makes possible the development and fabrication of the experimental breeding module DEMO-RF. The R&D activity on the development of Plasma Facing Components with beryllium and tungsten armour enables selection of the best armour materials grades and prediction of their behavior in case of plasma disruptions. Development of the bases of manufacturing technologies for multi-layered components was also positive. It was demonstrated that the critical incident heat fluxes of 16 MW/m2 for Be–CuCrZr composite and 30 MW/m2 for W–Cu–CuCrZr composite, which are significantly higher than the operational heat fluxes for first wall and divertor vertical target respectively did not led to failure of structures. The NbTi strand for poloidal coils PF1/6 and Nb3Sn strand for toroidal coils of ITER magnet system, which meet the enhanced ITER requirements, have been designed, experimentally tested and preparation for their industrial production is in progress.