نقطه نظر شرکتهای میناس گریس درباره نقش دانشگاه ها و موسسات تحقیقاتی در فعالیت های R & D
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|10561||2012||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Research Policy, Volume 41, Issue 9, November 2012, Pages 1683–1695
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interactions between firms, universities and research institutes based in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The theoretical standpoint is the innovation system of developing countries. Multivariate cluster analysis is used, more specifically, the Grade of Membership method, to group firms with similar characteristics and evaluate their pattern of interaction with universities and research institutes. The main results show that the highest rates of interaction are found among firms that manufacture chemical products, cellulose, paper and paper products, followed by those engaged in the extraction of metallic and non-metallic minerals.
This paper discusses the contribution of universities and research institutes to research and development (R&D) activities performed by firms in Minas Gerais, based on a pilot project entitled “MG Survey”, conducted in 2005. Its overall objective is to analyze the interactions of Minas Gerais firms with universities and research institutes from a business viewpoint. To achieve this objective, the firms in Minas Gerais that most use the services of universities and research institutes were located. The sampling for analysis was based on their size, origin of their capital, existence and location of R&D activities. The next step was to verify the types of information sources and the scientific disciplines that are considered most important by the firms. From a theoretical standpoint, the concept of a National System of Innovation (NSI) is used to organize the discussion. Although this concept was developed to examine the institutional structure of developed countries, references will be made to the NSI of immature or developing countries, as is the case of Brazil. In terms of applied economics, the MG Survey database is used to analyze the point of view of the firms about their interactions with universities and research institutes. Multivariate cluster analysis was chosen to classify groups of firms according to their profiles, pursuant to the similarity of their characteristics. The firm typology used, which will be explained in Section 4.2, considers three major groups or profiles. The main results found in this paper indicate that two profiles group firms which show interaction with universities and research institutes, while the third profile groups firms with weaker interaction with these institutions. In addition to the introduction, the paper has four more sections. The second presents the theoretical framework. The third section puts in context the position of industrial and innovative firms in Minas with regards to Brazil as a whole. The fourth deals with methodology and is sub-divided into three items: database, analytical model and result analysis. Finally, the fifth section presents the main conclusions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper analyzed the interactions between firms, universities and research institutes from the point of view of firms in Minas Gerais, which stated to the MG Survey that they conduct research and development activities. Among the most important results found is the fact that the firms belonging to extreme profile 1 had more interactions with universities and research institutes, compared to firms in the other profiles, with emphasis on firms in the chemical products, cellulose, paper and paper products, food and beverage, electrical machinery, devices and materials, biotechnology and furniture industries. Most of these are low and medium level technology industries, except for some sectors of the chemical industry and the entire biotechnology industry. The scientific fields considered to be most important for these industries were agronomy, food science and technology, chemical engineering, medicine, biological sciences and chemistry. These results show alignment between the economic activities and the areas of knowledge. It can be said that the interactions with firms in the chemicals, cellulose, paper and paper products industries are due to the history of agrarian sciences and forestry engineering in Brazil, as presented by Suzigan and Albuquerque (2011). These authors showed that at the start of the 1930s, the Brazilian government launched a program of tax incentives and financing for domestic cellulose production. Many firms began a research program focused on selecting the most appropriate seeds for cellulose production. To achieve this goal, the firms set up research labs and experimental planting areas. “This was the first coordinated effort of interaction with science and technology for cellulose production (…)” (Suzigan and Albuquerque, 2011, p. 20). Besides that, the attribution of a high degree of importance, according to the evaluation of firms in Minas Gerais, to research by universities and research institutes in the scientific and engineering fields related to the aforementioned industries, highlighted the interaction among these institutions. In addition, the biotechnology industry has a high degree of interaction with the areas of biological science and medicine, which was captured by the MG Survey. According to SEBRAE-MG (2005), in this industry, the state of Minas Gerais accounted for 29% of all domestic production, presenting strong growth (29%), from 2001 to 2004, and achieving sales of 550 million reais, which makes the state one of the largest biotechnology hubs in Latin America. In this profile, the firms are, for the most part, Brazilian owned. The firms also evaluated the contribution of universities and research institutes as very important for suggesting new projects and for concluding existing ones. This result was also found by Rapini et al. (2009a), demonstrating that the universities in Minas Gerais are important to complement the R&D activities of firms. The firms classified in extreme profile 2, which are mostly foreign owned, also showed some interactions with universities. These interactions were shown in their responses, which classified universities and research institutes as relatively important sources of information for concluding existing projects and little or moderately important, in their R&D activities, with regards to contracted research and joint or cooperatives projects. The main industries in this profile were in the areas of metallic and non-metallic mineral extraction, basic metallurgy and manufacturing of rubber and plastic goods. All these industries employ low and medium levels of technology. For these industries, the main scientific fields were computer science, industrial drawing, civil, materials and metallurgical, mining, electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering, geosciences and mathematics. When the contributions of universities and research institutes are analyzed as sources of information for R&D activities, in the view of firms, these institutions assume an intermediary level of importance. They view resources/products from universities and research institutes in the same manner. It can be said that interactions, even less intensive ones, at firms in the metallic and non-metallic mineral extraction and basic metallurgy industries are due to the history of mining and materials and metallurgical engineering in Minas Gerais, as presented by Suzigan and Albuquerque (2011). These authors showed that the founding of the Ouro Preto School of Mines was fundamental for the start of research in these areas. The Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department at UFMG also played a major role in the history of interaction in this industry. In 1973, department researchers proposed collaboration with some firms in the industry to find and solve problems related to metallurgy and mining. Based on this collaboration, financed by Finep, cooperative graduation programs between universities and firms were established. Of these programs, “several of the thesis and dissertations defended contributed with important knowledge motivated by the search for a solution to concrete problems faced by firms, and created patents and technological innovations in processes and products” (Suzigan and Albuquerque, 2011). Finally, firms belonging to extreme profile 3 do not consider universities and research institutes to be important sources of information that contribute to their R&D activities. In the point of view of these firms, when there is some type of interaction, the contributions of universities and research institutes are of little or no importance for the several sources of information that are used for the firms’ R&D activities. They view resources/products from universities and research institutes in the same manner. Thus, it can be said that there is weak interaction. A proposal for future research is to also consider the point of view of the universities and research institutes to actually measure the intensity of interaction between universities and research institutes with firms in Minas Gerais, which would serve to complement the results of this paper. It is also important to consider, for future research, studies on the regulatory framework of innovation. Clear rules help to mitigate uncertainties, encourage investments, and may contribute to increasing interaction between universities and firms and for the maturity of the Brazilian NSI. It is also believed that it is important, for example, for the regulatory framework to include tax incentives for firms and specific legislation that requires that they invest a percentage of their sales in R&D.