حلقه تن لاک دیجیتالی زمان تاخیر: تجزیه و تحلیل عملکرد در نویز گاوسی افزایشی
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of the Franklin Institute, Volume 339, Issue 1, January 2002, Pages 43–60
Recently, a new non-uniform sampling digital phase-locked loop, the time-delay digital tanlock loop (TDTL), has been proposed. We have analyzed in a previous work the first- and second-order TDTLs under noise-free conditions. In this work, we analyze the performance of the TDTL in the presence of additive Gaussian noise for different values of the loop parameters. It is shown that the expected value of the steady-state phase errors at the input and the output of the phase error detector are equal to the noise-free steady-state values, while the variance is significantly reduced when the signal-to-noise ratio is increased or the phase shift introduced by the time-delay approaches 90°. The locking ranges of the TDTL parameters under noise-free conditions are unchanged by the presence of noise.
Phase-locked loops (PLLs) are important subsystems in signal processing and communications. They contribute significantly to communications where they are widely used in synchronization, frequency modulation, frequency tracking and demodulation. PLLs have a variety of applications in signal processing like filtering, frequency synthesis, signal detection, motor-speed control and many other applications . Digital signal processing has dominated over analog signal processing due to the increasing performance, speed, reliability and the great reduction in size and cost of digital integrated circuits, also motivated by the huge developments in microprocessor technology. Consequently, digital phase-locked loops (DPLLs) have dominated over the analog PLLs as they solved many problems associated with the analog loops like sensitivity to dc drifts and the need for initial calibration and periodic adjustments. Nonuniform sampling DPLLs have been proved to be the most important digital phase-locked loops because they are simple to implement and easy to model . Significant advantages over other nonuniform sampling digital phase-locked loops have been obtained by the digital tanlock loop (DTL), proposed in . The first-order DTL has wider locking range than other nonuniform sampling DPLLs. Locking conditions of DTL are unaffected by the variation of the input signal power under noise-free conditions, hence no need for automatic gain control, and they have reduced sensitivity to this variation in the presence of noise . DTL proved to be efficient for many applications in digital communications (see, for example,  and ). The constant 90° phase-shifter is a vital part of DTL and all its modifications (see, for instance,  and ), which can be implemented using a Hilbert transformer  and . However, a digital Hilbert transformer introduces approximations and imposes limitations on the range of input frequencies, especially when implemented on a microprocessor  and . In  and , a constant time-delay unit is used to produce a phase-shifted version of the incoming signal, giving rise to the time-delay digital tanlock loop (TDTL). This method reduces the complexity of the phase-shifter and avoids the limitations and other problems that accompanies the 90° phase-shifter in the conventional DTL (CDTL). Except for the linearity of the characteristic function of the phase error detector, the main advantages of CDTL are maintained by TDTL despite its reduced structure. First, under noise-free conditions its performance is not affected by the variation of signal power. Second, the first-order loop can have wider locking range than other sinusoidal DPLLs (including CDTL) if the circuit parameters are properly chosen. The region of locking independently of initial phase errors in the first-order loop can be made larger than that of the first-order CDTL since the conditions of independent locking are less stringent in TDTL as a result of non-linearity. Although the locking range of the second-order TDTL is reduced compared to that of CDTL, this reduction is not a severe shortcoming since it mainly concerns high values of the loop gain K1 which are not desired in the presence of noise. In fact, any range of input frequencies can be handled after a suitable arrangement of the circuit parameters. In this paper, we analyze the performance of the first and second-order TDTLs in the presence of additive Gaussian noise (parts of this work appeared in ). It is shown that, in the presence of additive Gaussian noise, the phase at the output of the phase error detector (PED) can be represented by the noise-free phase plus a non-Gaussian phase errors. Cramer–Rao (CR) bound, which was missing in the treatment of CDTL in , is included in this study for better understanding of the circuit performance. The mean value of the steady-state phase errors at the input and the output of the phase error detector are shown to be the same as the noise-free steady-state phase errors φss and ess, respectively, while the variance decreases as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increases and converges to the CR bound for all values of the effective parameters: , and SNR. The locking ranges of the circuit parameters are the same as those under noise-free conditions. The best-possible performance can be ensured in TDTL design when the time-delay τ is chosen to give a phase shift ψ=ωτ as near as possible to π/2 from both sides during the expected range of the input frequency ω. In the following section, a general description of TDTL is given. In Section 3, the system performance is analyzed in the presence of Gaussian noise for the first and second-order TDTLs.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this paper we have analyzed the performance of the newly proposed digital phase-locked loop (DPLL), the time-delay digital tanlock loop (TDTL), in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. The conventional digital tanlock loop (CDTL) introduced significant advantages over other sinusoidal DPLLs, except for the complexity of the loop, and TDTL has the same merits with a reduced complexity. We have proved in a previous work that although TDTL has a reduced structure as compared to the CDTL, it has a performance comparable to that of CDTL under noise-free conditions. In this paper, we have shown that the performance of TDTL in the presence of additive Gaussian noise is also successful and comparable to that of CDTL, especially under careful choice of the circuit parameters. Under the steady-state condition of operation, the first- and second-order TDTLs have expected values of the phase error at the input and the output of the PED exactly the same as their noise-free values, while the variance of the phase error is a decreasing function of the SNR and the loop parameter K1′ (in addition to r for the second-order TDTL). The variance also decreases and approaches CDTL case as the phase shift ψ (introduced by the time-delay) approaches π/2 from both sides. Hence, TDTL does not lose tracking of the input phase in additive Gaussian noise in all cases. However, it is better in TDTL design to choose a time-delay τ that gives a phase shift ψ=ωτ as near to π/2 as possible during the expected range of the input frequency ω. No change in TDTL locking ranges is implied by the presence of Gaussian noise.