تجزیه و تحلیل SWOT برای حمل و نقل ایمن تر مواد شیمیایی مایع فله ای در تانکرها
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|5324||2008||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 154, Issues 1–3, 15 June 2008, Pages 901–913
The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.
Many sections of the worldwide chemical industry depend on the transport of large quantities of liquid chemicals by maritime tankers. Chemical cargoes have different properties, and many of them represent health and safety hazards, which is a critical issue for the tanker industry . Ocean shipping is the dominant transport mode in chemical logistics, as large volumes of liquid chemicals require transportation between continents. At present, 65–85% of international trade is via sea transport, and this is expected to increase with the growing world economy . The present rate of construction of chemical tankers exceeds the rate of demolition and, thus, the world chemical fleet is growing, as illustrated by Fig. 1.Chemical tankers are complex vessels that are designed to carry different types of chemical cargo. Some cargoes need heating, some need refrigerating/freezing, some must be kept under inert conditions, some need to be carried in stainless steel tanks, and some are flammable, explosive or give off noxious vapor , and these properties require careful consideration during the planning process and loading. Checks need to be made regarding the chemical ship type, tank coating compatibility, compatibility with other cargo, and the environmental controls required during transport. In addition, the venting requirements, monitoring equipment, vapor detection, compatible fire protection medium, and density limitations of the product in relation to the holding tank construction, and pumping requirements are important considerations . Every type of chemical liquid that is carried by chemical tankers needs specific carriage and loading/discharging conditions, and specific operational and safety-related precautions. This study used strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to identify and develop safer carriage of liquid chemicals. Section 2 describes the hazards; Section 3 describes the SWOT analysis used in this study; and Section 4 is a discussion of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the carriage of liquid chemicals in bulk. Section 5 describes the strategies suggested for safer carriage of bulk chemicals in tankers and in Section 6, an incident investigation case study has done by utilizing analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with SWOT analysis method.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Accidents and incidents occur in the maritime industry, in spite of the latest navigational technologies. The operation of chemical tankers causes more incidents and accidents when compared to other types of ships as a direct result of the behavior of the chemicals being carried. The aim of this study was to use SWOT analysis to identify the positive and negative factors affecting the carriage of liquid chemicals by tankers, and the performance of the crew. We propose practical solutions for reducing the frequency of human error, accidents and incidents on chemical tankers during cargo operations and navigation, taking into account the strengths and weaknesses, and the opportunities and threats related to the carriage of liquid chemicals by tankers. It is clear that the hazards associated with the carriage of liquid chemicals in tankers are more complex and dangerous when compared to other types of ships. We propose that the use of SWOT analysis is an acceptable basis for formulating strategy designed to minimize human error, accidents and incidents, and defects of shipboard operations. The main aim of this study was to identify an appropriate management tool to increase the level of safety for chemical tankers during cargo and navigation operations. Although the operation of tankers is more complex than that of other types of ship, and working on a tanker needs extra knowledge and skills, according to the INTERTANKO report, the percentage of detained tanker ships is 4%, while that of other types of ships is 6%. Well-operated ships are safer and more profitable, and it is clear that when strategies that are suggested to convert possible threats into opportunities and possible weaknesses into strengths are applied to chemical tankers, the safety of the working environment will be improved.