مدل کسب و کار کارآفرین : به سوی یک دیدگاه یکپارچه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|7515||2005||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 58, Issue 6, June 2005, Pages 726–735
Highly emphasized in entrepreneurial practice, business models have received limited attention from researchers. No consensus exists regarding the definition, nature, structure, and evolution of business models. Still, the business model holds promise as a unifying unit of analysis that can facilitate theory development in entrepreneurship. This article synthesizes the literature and draws conclusions regarding a number of these core issues. Theoretical underpinnings of a firm's business model are explored. A six-component framework is proposed for characterizing a business model, regardless of venture type. These components are applied at three different levels. The framework is illustrated using a successful mainstream company. Suggestions are made regarding the manner in which business models might be expected to emerge and evolve over time.
Ventures fail despite the presence of market opportunities, novel business ideas, adequate resources, and talented entrepreneurs. A possible cause is the underlying model driving the business. Surprisingly, little attention has been given to business models by researchers, with much of the published work focusing on Internet-based models. The available research tends to be descriptive in nature, examining approaches to model construction, noting standard model types, citing examples of failed and successful models, and discussing the need for new models as conditions change. Yet, no consensus exists regarding the definition or nature of a model, and there has been no attempt to prioritize critical research questions or establish research streams relating to models. The purpose of this study is to review existing perspectives and propose an integrative framework for characterizing the entrepreneur's business model.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The business model can be a central construct in entrepreneurship research. This article has sought to provide direction in addressing some of the more vexing questions surrounding models. The model represents a strategic framework for conceptualizing a value-based venture. The proposed framework allows the user to design, describe, categorize, critique, and analyze a business model for any type of company. It provides a useful backdrop for strategically adapting fundamental elements of a business. By specifying the elements that constitute a model, the framework enhances the ability to assess model attributes. A model that ignores one or more of the specified components will suffer in terms of its comprehensiveness, while inconsistency can manifest itself both in terms of the fit among decision areas within a given component as well as the fit between components. With the proposed framework, each of six components is evaluated at three levels. At the foundation level, the model is defined in terms of a standardized set of decisions that can be quantified. A benefit of this standardization is the ability to make comparisons across models from a broad universe of ventures. New avenues for empirical research become possible, ranging from the creation of general model taxonomies and investigations of relationships among the foundation level variables to modeling relationships between the model and a host of endogenous and exogenous variables. Also promising is the ability to identify model archetypes. By applying codes to the various decision choices across the six components of the framework at the foundation level, statistical tools can be used to identify dominant patterns among decision choices. At the proprietary level, considerable scope for innovation exists within each model component. The model becomes a form of intellectual property, with some entrepreneurs actually obtaining patents for their models. Considerable work remains to properly understand business model innovation. A beginning point is to develop measures of model innovativeness. A further step involves determining how the relative importance of component innovation varies depending on industry or market characteristics. The business model can serve as a focusing device for entrepreneurs and employees, especially when supported by a set or rules or guidelines that derive from decisions made at the proprietary level. Rules provide a clearer sense of the firm's value proposition and are a source of guidance regarding actions that might compromise the value equation. Additional research is needed regarding what constitutes a rule, types of rules, differences between rules and objectives, qualities of good rules, and ways in which rules become dysfunctional. Other areas requiring further investigation include the ability of entrepreneurs and others to assess model quality. Systematic approaches for assessing model viability are needed. Methods are also needed for appraising the model's fit with changing environmental conditions; just as critical are issues surrounding model implementation. One challenge concerns the translation of model components into operational decisions, where the importance of fit will likely differ by activity area. Another challenge involves experimenting with new strategic moves in ways that do not compromise the model. Finally, further insights are needed into the dynamics of model emergence and evolution.