کسب و کار نوآوری سمپوزیوم در چه قیمت ؟ افکار مربوط به IP در مدل های کسب و کار جدید برای اطلاعات فضایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|7721||2011||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Acta Astronautica, Volume 69, Issues 7–8, September–October 2011, Pages 714–721
Spatial data and imagery generators are set to become tomorrow's key players in the information society. This is why satellite owners and operators are examining new revenue-producing models for developing space-related products and services. The use and availability of broadband internet width and satellite data-based services will continue to increase in the future. With the capacity to deliver real time precision downstream data, space agencies and the satellite industry can respond to the demand for high resolution digital space information which, with the appropriate technology, can be integrated into a variety of web-based applications.1 At a time when the traditional roles of space agencies are becoming more hybrid, largely as a result of the greater drive towards commercial markets, new value-added markets for space-related information products are continuing to attract attention. This paper discusses whether traditional data policies on space data access and IP licensing schemes stand to remain the feasible prototype for distributing and marketing space data, and how this growth market might benefit from looking at an ‘up and running’ global IP management system already operating to manage end user digital demand.
Studies using variable methods of assessing the return on investment show that investment in the space sector has been consistently beneficial.4 The advantages deriving from space applications in specific industry sectors were noted as early on as the 1980s.5 Interestingly, the actual volume of investment does not appear to be an issue itself; the level of per capita investment in space programmes is not as high as is popularly conceived.6 Nevertheless, it is a factor to consider when the subject of commercial space data markets for space information products and services is discussed. Today, the cost factor of space is being addressed again, with interest developing in new space applications and tools to serve a variety of public and private uses.7 These range from weather forecasting tools to transport (air, road and rail) and energy and environmental monitoring, to name a few. Product development in this field ranges from integrated and web-based ‘aides’ that deliver secure communication and navigation functions, which are accessible from equipment such as GPS enabled gadgets, to advanced secure systems for tailored-made end products.8 The advanced professional smart phone is an ‘intelligent’ prototype of the tools to come. The scope for such products and services has already been the focus of workshops and studies carried out by space experts and agencies, eager to encourage development by the industry.9 These will one day be able to target users through personally linked or institutionally profiled marketing and advertising technology.10 However, the uptake on commercial development for space data business models is slow, despite predictions that this is a growth sector.11
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Spatial data are now required for a whole range of commercial and security purposes. New players in the data processing business – both space and ground-based – are looking to develop new products and markets. The current space infrastructures have developed over a period of forty years. Any new business model and system needs time to establish, but the goal should be achieved within the short term, if outer space is to serve the immediate ends of sustainability.78 The commercial viability of spatial data will stand on its own when data can be sold on to providers of integrated value-added data products and services. Any profit model requires more than merely asserting economic copyright, especially where there are varying forms of essential information. The exact mix of interests will depend on the user community to be served.79 Space agencies and operators must determine where the cut-off is to lie between using original data and exporting it into derivative products or works. Data information markets require greater coordination between owners and operators, alongside astute distribution and pricing policies, tailored to the particular customer needs. There need to be coordinated methods of classifying data, and an assessment of what is already available at low cost or freely. If common ‘file-sharing’ platforms were created and spin-offs were set up by the owners and agencies, then issues of security and classified data could be dealt with at the right level. The platform could look to advertising revenues and product developers to provide a whole range of different services to user groups. It is now time to let spatial data systems interact with running user-friendly systems that permit controlled access, revenue-based models and also allow derivative works – as defined – to be made. The availability of real time 24/24 data surely means that agencies and governments recognise the overriding need for information, rather than restricting creativity. Making available is the first step towards commanding the appropriate price, and responding to society's needs for space-based information the second. This would allow agencies, operators and other commercial companies to enter the downstream markets. It would allow governments to support their national projects and commercial sector, while furthering competition on the market. The virtual world is here and the information revolution has been won.80 Information and systems monopolies rarely find favour with the law. With the latest data policies already showing trends towards increased access, the time is ripe for the commercial sector to bring forth the business models. Copyright continues to raise its head in search of originality. In the context of developing viable markets for space data products and services, successful models require both creativity and collaboration between the public and the private sectors.81