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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|11867||2003||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 24, Issue 4, August 2003, Pages 357–369
In the face of a highly competitive environment, it has long been considered important for a hotel to formulate a marketing competition strategy, strengthen corporate operations and upgrade quality of service. In formulating competition strategies, one must first measure the comparative performance of the entire industry, before one may understand one’s advantages and disadvantages. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA), developed by Charnes et al. (Eur.J. Oper. Res. 2(6) (1978) 429), and the Malmquist productivity index expressed by Färe et al. (J. Product Anal. 3(1) (1992) 85), to measure the managerial performance of 45 hotels in 1998 and the efficiency change of 45 Hotels from 1994 to 1998. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in efficiency change due to difference in sources of customers and management styles. In addition, this paper showed that the managerial efficiency of international tourist hotels in Taiwan is related to the level of internationalization of hotels. Moreover, the entire industry can be partitioned into six clusters based on relative managerial efficiency and efficiency change. Effective management strategies are developed specifically to each of the six clusters of hotel. It was expected this study can provide useful information for future hotel management needs.
Since the end of cold war, reconciliation has gradually replaced confrontation. Barriers to international travel have gradually been removed. With the growing popularity of free trade, international exchange has increased tremendously symbolized by a relaxation of visa arrangements around the world. This has prompted the rapid growth of tourism industries. Tourism has not only become one of the largest sources of income for many countries but also has an effective means to stimulate global economic development. Since Taiwan entered the martial law in 1949, the development of international tourism industries in Taiwan has encountered significant limitations. With the lifting of this law in 1985, tourist activities have grown and the number of tourist arrivals increased from 1.3 million in 1985 to 2.41 million in 1998. Revenues from travel and foreign currencies increased from US$919 million to US$3,776 billion in 1998. With the lifting of martial law in Taiwan, hotels have mushroomed nationwide. International hotel numbers have increased from 44 in 1985 to 54 in 1998. Ordinary hotels have increased from 2973 hotels in 1985 to 3424 in 1998. However, because the rapid expansion of the hotels exceeded market demand, many hotels subsequently closed, partly due to mismanagement. Over the last 5 years, 8 international hotels and 443 ordinary hotels have closed. Facing a highly competitive environment, the formulation of marketing strategy, strengthening corporate operations and upgrading the quality of service has become essential for survival. In formulating competition strategies, one major problem is the measurement of management performance of the entire industry, prior to an assessment of one's advantages and disadvantages. Another problem encountered is to determine the factors which affect managerial efficiency. This paper adopted data envelopment analysis (DEA), developed by Charnes, Copper, and Rhodes (1978), using multiple inputs and outputs to measure the relative managerial efficiency of 45 international hotels in Taiwan. At the same time, the paper used the Malmquist productivity approach expressed by Färe, Grosskoph, Lindrgen and Ross (1992) to measure the managerial efficiency change of 45 international hotels. By comparing annual changes in the managerial efficiency of individual hotels, it is possible to identify general trends in the efficiency of the hotel industry as a whole and to identify individual hotel exhibiting patterns of change in efficiency that differ from the rest of the industry. A further analysis of the results should help managers to understand the factors that determine the managerial efficiency in Taiwanese hotels. Moreover, based on the measurement of managerial efficiency and efficiency change, a management decision matrix was developed to serve as a basis for an assessment of the competition strategy of 45 international hotels in Taiwan.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The main objective of measuring efficiency is to gain an insight of how a DMU being evaluated can improve efficiency with its current resource base or change resource allocation. This is especially important in the management of hotels under a perfect competition environment. The major problem in measuring lies on the incommensurability of different output measurements as well as input measurements. This problem is solved in the path breaking work of Charnes et al. (1978) by the DEA approach. This paper adopted DEA to measure the relative managerial efficiency of 45 international hotels in Taiwan. At the same time, the Mulmquist productivity approach expressed by Färe et al. (1992) was used to measure changes in efficiency. By comparing relative efficiency and the rate of efficiency change of the hotel industry, an individual hotel's competitiveness and pace of progress can be identified. A further analysis of the DEA results help managers to understand factors determining the management performance. In this paper, the linkage between efficiency measurement and strategy formulation are illustrated by 45 international hotels in Taiwan. It was expected this study could provide useful information for future related research as well as identifying future hotel management needs.