راهبردهایی برای توسعه خدمات و بازار کارآفرینی نرم افزار طراحی شرکت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|11938||2001||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 21, Issue 3, March 2001, Pages 157–166
Based on a review of the literature of new technology-based firms, this study developed a strategic management framework for service and market development of entrepreneurial software firms (ESFs) by integrating business with technology strategies. Testing the strategic management framework in a pilot sample in Malaysia showed that vulnerability, market uncertainty, rapid technological change and development, and lack of resources, especially human resources, were constraining the growth and development of these software firms. The study found that for their product development, the Malaysian ESFs lacked a clear strategic focus on developing technological superiority, and accessing multiple sources of technology. Strategies critical for software market development that need to be improved were the speed to market entry, linkage with large customers, and development of appropriate distribution channels. Long term policy, top management commitment, responsiveness to change, and creation of an innovation accepting, entrepreneurship accommodating culture were found to be important facilitators for innovating new software.
A literature survey on small firms and innovation in the UK revealed substantial gaps in our knowledge about innovation within SMEs. In particular, the evidence is inconsistent on how such firms develop strategy and incorporate innovation into their thinking on this, how they mobilize and access resources and how they monitor and control their disposition in innovative projects (Hoffman et al., 1998). Changes in the operating environment of entrepreneurial technology-based firms occur increasingly more often because of rapid technological change, and globalization of their markets. Growing competition requires the ability to adapt, to change and to find new ways of meeting those challenges. Strategic assessment of the nature and direction of change and the build-up of innovation competence to manage the response to turbulent and shifting environments requires the firm to craft an explicit technology strategy that is systematically integrated with its business strategy (Lee and Ro, 1996 and Bessant et al., 1998). Adaptive and creative renewal of products, services and the processes to produce and deliver them forces management to make those strategies explicit that have to be adjusted frequently for survival and growth (Slatter, 1992, Hill and Jones, 1995, Rogers and Larsen, 1995, Berry, 1996, Baruch, 1997 and Tidd et al., 1997). The portfolio of strategies for implementation include scanning, deploying strategic goals, customer orientation, supplier linkages, technology access, building networks at the different levels to support a focused and continuous development of products and markets (Bessant et al., 1998). Managing the tensions that emerge from the misfit between technological resources and strategic choices is one of the most serious challenges for management in small high-tech firms (Berry, 1998). Utilizing resources effectively and reconfiguring them to strengthen their competence to innovate is the only way for small high-tech firms to sustain their competitiveness (Porter, 1997 and Teece and Pisano, 1994). Moreover, if the business is fragile in nature due to its entrepreneurial and high-tech characteristics, as is the case with small software designing firms, their capability for strategically directing innovative responses on a continuing basis is even more critical. Studies have shown that 65–80% of small high-tech firms drop out before maturity because of vulnerability due to a rapid rate of technological change, market volatility and uncertainty, competition, employee characteristics, resource constraints, or the entrepreneurial founding team (Slatter, 1992). Having limited resources while facing rapid technological change and short product cycles, entrepreneurial software firms rely mainly on their technological knowledge. Most critical are their capabilities to assess the nature and direction of the change required, and their competence for successful implementation. Their efforts, both, in service and market innovation, must be guided by an underlying strategic rationale. Based on the review of literature on strategic management of entrepreneurial technology-based firms, this study developed a strategic management framework for service and market development in entrepreneurial software designing firms.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study found that the entrepreneurial software firms surveyed in Malaysia were competitive mainly in designing high quality customized software but did not have sufficient resources and capabilities for developing new software on their own. Direct government support offered to Technology Park tenants in form of R&D and technical support (technoware), tax holidays, and loan schemes, provided important resources to develop this industry. In order to stay competitive, most firms had to concentrate on developing their technological resources and capabilities, i.e. attracting skilled software engineers and fresh computer science graduates (humanware). The entrepreneurs were continuously involved in activating and reinforcing new software development projects. As they considered their firm's operating environment as fairly stable, most had not yet set up an environmental scanning function. To some extent, the firms were also getting the latest information on new software development (inforware) by recruiting foreign-educated graduates, and through strategic alliances, especially joint ventures with foreign companies. The entrepreneurs realized, however, that they will have to do regular and systematic scanning of software technology and market trends to cope with and adjust to rapid changes in this industry, especially if they want to innovate their software products. The ESFs were facing problems in the efforts of innovating their software products. The greatest barriers to new software development as perceived by the Malaysian entrepreneurs were mostly external. They identified as main barriers the severe competition, followed by inadequate infrastructure opportunities and high cost of technical people, whereas raising capital and finding customers for existing software products were considered as hardly difficult. The greatest barrier, however, was internal. Most ESFs lacked sufficient know-how for marketing real new software to their existing customer, and for entering foreign markets with their products. Strong technological capabilities in modifying existing and designing new software products, as well as opportunities through growing market demand facilitated the ESFs' innovation efforts. In addition to that, government support and a good product image were also found supportive.