اثر عدم اطمینان محیطی و برنامه راهبردی سیستم های اطلاعاتی بر عملکرد شرکت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|12007||2003||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Information & Management, Volume 40, Issue 4, March 2003, Pages 257–268
In our study, we empirically examined the relationships among perceived environmental uncertainty (PEUN), the level of the strategic applications and the facilitators of IS strategic alignment. Using a systems approach, we also showed some ways that these relationships impact the performance of a firm. Apparently, PEUN has an indirect effect on IS strategic applications through the facilitators of alignment. An uncertain environment, a high level of strategic applications and well-arranged facilitators of alignment can contribute more to the improvement of performance than in a less uncertain or stable environment. Therefore, the benefits of a high level of strategic applications can still be realized in a competitive and uncertain environment. However, when the environment is stable (low PEUN), an excessively low level of strategic applications may decrease a firm’s performance.
The value of strategic information systems (IS) has been an important topic in both academia and industry. The use of IS for strategic purposes can provide a variety of competitive advantages. Wiseman and MacMillan  suggested five different forms of competitive advantage that may result from strategic applications of IS: differentiation, cost, innovation, growth and alliance advantage. Many studies have tried to investigate the benefits (e.g. , ,  and ). However, in some research efforts (e.g.  and ) the results were inconclusive, and the relationship between the strategic applications and the financial performance of a firm was very weak. Investment in IS does not directly lead to superior financial performance. The impact of IS investment on performance depends on contextual variables, such as external environment, organizational context and IS maturity. Kivijarvi and Saarinen , Ragowsky et al.  and Li and Ye  have empirically shown the moderating effect of environmental uncertainty and the mediating effect of IS maturity on the relationship between IS investment and improved financial performance. In the same way, heavy investment in a strategic IS does not always guarantee high profitability. Benefits of strategic IS investment are also naturally dependent upon many uncontrollable contextual factors. External factors such as competition, uncertainty and needs are driving forces for strategic applications of IS , ,  and . Challenging business environments can make it imperative for firms to seek out opportunities to use IS for strategic purposes. However, in a stable and simple environment, firms generally pursue defensive strategies based on high efficiency and cost effectiveness, and a strategic IS is a costly luxury. Thus, the strategic application of IS is not really required under a stable and noncompetitive environment. A strategic IS application is one having a profound effect on the company’s success and destiny by: (a) influencing or shaping the company’s strategy; or (b) playing a direct role in the implementation or support of the company’s strategy . Therefore, in recognizing and seizing opportunities of strategic IS applications, business goals and strategy should be properly incorporated. Aligning IS with business strategy is a means that considers business objectives or strategies in the strategic IS planning. It is a way to scan and search for strategic IS opportunities . To identify and seize these, the alignment of IS with business strategy is critical: strategic IS applications are characterized by the mutual information flows and relationships between business strategy and IS planning  and . In our study, relationships among external environments, IS strategic alignment and strategic applications level of IS were investigated. Using a systems approach, we also empirically investigated the impact of the fit among an external environment, the alignment of IS with business strategy and the strategic applications level of IS on the financial gains of a firm.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Prior studies empirically investigated the positive impact of the strategic applications of IS on the performance of a firm. However, some studies failed to show positive effects. In our study, we considered PEUN and alignment facilitators as key research variables, which may directly or indirectly relate to strategic applications. In a few previous studies which considered contextual variables, such as external environments, they employed an interaction approach to analyze the effects of the fit between contextual variables and the level of strategic applications. However, we adopted a systems approach. Our study empirically examined the relationships among PEUN, alignment facilitators and the level of strategic applications. The results showed that there are significant positive relationships among PEUN, facilitators of alignment and the level of strategic applications. So, these results confirmed the arguments of previous research. The results of our study also represented that PEUN has an indirect effect on the strategic applications level of IS through facilitators of the alignment of IS with business strategy. Hence, it is suggested that facilitators of alignment must be well-prepared first to attain a high level of strategic applications in coping with uncertain external environments. With a systems approach, we investigated the impact of the fit among PEUN, alignment facilitators and the level of strategic applications on the organizational performance of a firm. According to the results of our study, it is proposed that under an uncertain environment, a high level of strategic applications with well-arranged facilitators of alignment can contribute more to the improvement in performance than in a more certain or stable environment. The results also showed that the mismatch between PEUN, alignment facilitators and the level of strategic applications (i.e. a high level of strategic applications with well-arranged facilitators under low PEUN) can decrease the performance. In our research, we obtained some unexpected results. The empirical results suggested that under low PEUN, an excessively low level of strategic applications and very poorly-prepared facilitators are likely to decrease the organizational performance. Hence, it seems that for the high performance of a firm, there exist the proper level or degree of the strategic applications and alignment facilitators in low PEUN. However, we cannot present and explain the appropriate level under low PEUN by using these results only. Additional research and investigation may be required. Limitations and future research efforts are suggested as follows. In our study, a long-term profitability such as revenue growth rate was not considered. Strategic IS are generally associated with long-term goals. Therefore, it seems necessary to examine the relationships between the level of strategic applications and long-term performance indexes. There are other contextual variables such as organizational structure and IS maturity that have an impact on the level of strategic applications. In future research, various contextual variables must be included to investigate their effects on strategic applications and to find out the ways that lead strategic applications to the high performance of a firm.