ارتباط بین فن آوری و استراتژی در بازار کسب و کار به کسب و کار : مورد تجارت الکترونیک
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|12010||2003||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 32, Issue 4, May 2003, Pages 291–300
Firms have been traditionally advised to adopt information and communication technologies (ICT) to support the achievement of existing business objectives. However, entry into business-to-business e-commerce may require the concurrent adoption of new business strategies. This paper argues, therefore, that ICT analysis needs to be considered at the same time and at the same strategic level, as internal, competitor and market analysis. This is because the source of the competitive advantage brought by ICT has changed, to be largely obtained through increase in customers' perceived value. The literature presents a confused picture of the likely consequences to a firm of its adoption of e-commerce. This paper concludes that any such adoption must be evaluated in the environment of the individual firm. A multidimensional analytical framework, taking a combined informational and marketing perspective, is presented to assist with such evaluations.
Business-to-business markets have fewer partners, closer buyer–seller relationships, better technology and better information exchange than business to consumer markets . Not surprisingly, they form the largest growth sector in terms of e-commerce and earn somewhere over 80% of the e-commerce revenues . The proportion of these firms engaged in business-to-business e-commerce that have developed specific strategies for their use of the Internet, cognisant of its potential impact on existing business practices, is not known. Digital technology, particularly the Internet, has been described as an enabler of a new, quasi economically efficient marketplace: one that is only limited by the unpredictability of consumers' behaviour. The new marketplace has been characterised by “perfect information for all,” or at least, “equal access to information about products, prices and distribution” (Ref. , pp. 157–163). The Internet and e-commerce have also been predicted to underpin a structural shift in business orientation, towards price convergence, with subsequent realignment of business networks  and . However, the impact of information and communication technologies (ICT) remains uncertain. Moderating environmental and circumstantial constraints include, inter alia, the variable rate of business representation on-line, logistics inefficiencies, imperfect information search capabilities, political boundaries and the black-box that business relationships are still today. Grover and Ramanial  cite six myths and what they call counter-myths concerning the impact of emerging ICT on markets, listing competing influences, which could, for instance, challenge the conventional assumption that the new business environment benefits the customer side of a supply relationship, rather than the supplier. If a firm adopts ICT-based innovations without a clear understanding of the scope and implications of that adoption, then not enough attention may be paid to realigning business strategy. As a result, business resources needed to achieve competitive advantage from the ICT investment may not be made available  and the investment in innovation may in the end be wasted, or even be detrimental to the firm's pre-adoption competitive position. The development of effective marketing strategy involves conducting internal, competitor and customer analyses as preliminaries to formulating strategies for market segmentation, targeting and positioning. Within this process, ICT is mostly considered either as (a) an environmental influence on the business-to-business market, along with economic, political and competitive influences (Ref. , p. 33) or (b) as an element of internal analysis, under the potentially misleading label of “technological environment analysis” (Ref. , p. 168). The conventional wisdom is that “technology strategy must reinforce the competitive advantage a firm is seeking to achieve and sustain” . This paper argues that ICT analysis needs to be considered on par and interdependently with internal, competitor and market analyses. More specifically, it argues that decisions about potential adoption of business to business e-commerce affect these analyses and, therefore, e-commerce adoption may require the concurrent adoption of new business strategies. Here, e-commerce is interpreted generally as “the use of electronic means and technologies to conduct commerce” . In developing this argument, the paper looks first at the way the source of the competitive advantage brought by ICT has changed over time. Next, lack of consistency in the use of the term “e-commerce” is linked to the confusing picture of the advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce adoption that has been painted in the literature. It is concluded that e-commerce adoption must be evaluated in the environment of the individual firm. The need for marketing strategies to be adjusted interdependently with adoption strategies is then justified. Section 6 presents a framework that may assist managers in designing a marketing/adoption strategy, by taking into account informational and market considerations.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
It is no longer credible to claim that e-commerce is just a tool that enhances current ways of doing business . E-commerce impacts on firms' internal, market and competitive environments, hence, it must impact on their competitive position. At the very least, e-commerce changes consumer and supplier behaviour  and  and this, by itself, should justify an overhaul of existing strategies. Determining whether a business should design a new strategy for its participation in the business market post-e-commerce, or retain existing strategies unchanged, or simply augment existing strategies with e-commerce features, is a decision mostly overlooked in the literature. The review in this paper of reported advantages and disadvantages of the adoption by business to business market participants of e-commerce identified multidimensional implications for a variety of facets of business activity. Because e-commerce has the potential to modify the competitive environment, all participants in the business market are likely to be affected by e-commerce, regardless of whether they are proactive about adoption or not. The impacts need to be analysed on a case specific basis. A framework for analysing such impacts from a dual informational/marketing perspective was provided, along with some issues general enough to apply to most firms seeking to design e-commerce inclusive business strategies for their participation in business markets. Testing of this framework, and the identification of further general issues, would be useful for practitioners and researchers alike. More research is needed in this area, particularly as new studies of cases of e-commerce adoption by businesses are generated. As well, the focus of this paper has been on business to business markets and no attempt was made to consider strategy in a business to consumer context.