غلبه بر استرس مربوط به کار و ارتقاء خلاقیت کارمند در صنعت هتل : نقش بازخورد کار از سرپرست
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|2282||2013||9 صفحه PDF||33 صفحه WORD|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hospitality Management, Available online 7 January 2013
1- توسعه تئوری و فرضیه
1-1- طبقه بندی استرس ناشی از کار: چالش گرا و مانع گرا
1-2- چه زمانی استرس در خلاقیت کار کارکنان، نتیجه بخش خواهد بود؟
1-3- استرس چالش گرا، بازخورد کار و خلاقیت کارمند
1-4- استرس مانع گرا، بازخورد کار و خلاقیت کارکنان
2- روش ها
2-1- نمونه و روش
2-2- اندازه گیری ها
2-2-1- مطالعه آزمایشی
2-2-2- استرس کار
2-2-3- بازخورد کار سرپرست
2-2-4- خلاقیت کارمند
2-2-5- متغیرهای کنترلی
2-2-6- تجزیه و تحلیل
3-1- آزمایش فرضیه ها
4 – مباحثه
1-4- مفاهیم مدیریتی
2-4- محدودیت ها و جهت ها برای تحقیقات آینده
This study adopts the literature on voice and examines the importance of task feedback (positive and negative) from supervisors in facilitating the emergence of creativity, as an expression of voice behavior, from two types of work stress (challenge- and hindrance-oriented). We theorized that both forms of feedback would interact with challenge- and hindrance-related stress to result in employee creativity. Using multi-source data from a total of 265 full-time Chinese employees in Beijing, China, we show that employees under challenge-related stress generated most creativity when levels of positive task feedback from their supervisors were high. Similarly, those suffering from hindrance stressors were more creative at work when supervisors provided less negative and more positive feedback. Future research and directions are also discussed.
Work stress has become one of the most widely studied topics in research, mainly because of its importance to employees’ psychological health, which in turn affects service quality and organizational effectiveness (Bliese and Halverson, 1996, Hon and Kim, 2007, Jex et al., 2001, Kahn and Byosiere, 1992, O’Neil and Davis, 2010 and Xie and Johns, 1995). It is reasonable to expect work stress to be negatively associated with job attitudes and performance. Researchers have found that work-related stress is associated with negative outcomes such as disloyalty, low morale, burnout, absenteeism, job seeking, or voluntary turnover (Glazer and Beehr, 2005 and Hamilton et al., 1993), which are detrimental to organizations and their members. However, existing literature mostly generate mix results and inconsistent findings on the relationship between work stress and job outcomes. A number of other studies show only a modest or no relationship between work stress and outcomes (Bretz et al., 1994, Jex et al., 2001 and Podasakoff et al., 2007). In their study of job seeking, Bretz et al. (1994) find no significant relationship between stress and job hunting or intention to leave. Consistent with this, several other studies suggest that stress may not necessarily be related to negative outcomes, but instead may have a positive impact on organizational effectiveness (Jex and Bliese, 1999 and Stamper and Johlke, 2003). For example, Jex et al. (2001) find no significant relationship between work overload and active coping behavior. Active coping behavior denotes actions initiated by individuals to solve work-related problems. Moreover, Demerouti et al. (2001) argue that demands and resources serve as buffers between job stressors and performance under strain. Other researchers show that work overload and time pressure enhances employees’ positive feelings toward the job and organization (see for example Hon and Kim, 2007 and LePine et al., 2005). These findings indicate that stress does not necessarily lead to negative outcomes at work. One explanation for these inconsistent findings may be that the relationships between work stress and outcomes differ according to the stressors that are being evaluated. That is, the stress associated with some stressors may result in negative outcomes, whereas others may produce positive outcomes. Support for this explanation can be found in a recent meta-analysis confirming that not all work-related stress is bad (LePine et al., 2005 and Podasakoff et al., 2007). Stress can produce a competitive edge and force employees to change and create novel ideas and procedures to solve problems. In an era of constant emphasis on change, employee creativity, and innovation in organizations, particularly for employees in the hospitality industry who are repeatedly encouraged to improve service quality and delivery, the idea of a creative workforce has captured managers’ attention. Creative ideas generate psychological and business benefits for both employees and the hotel industry as a whole (Hon, 2012 and Hon and Leung, 2011). One way of meeting current business challenges is to rely heavily on employees’ creativity when serving customers seeking quality accommodation and food and beverage (F&B) services. This can substantially contribute to innovation, productivity, and long-term success in the hospitality business (Amabile et al., 1996 and Hon, 2011). Creativity here refers to the development of novel and useful ideas about products, services, ideas, procedures, or work processes, generated by individuals working together within a complex social system (Amabile and Khaire, 2008, George and Zhou, 2001 and Woodman et al., 1993). In spite of the growing attention to creativity in the hotel industry, however, there is still very little research on the topic (Hon, 2011). An interesting question of whether work stress and creativity is always negatively related, or may in some circumstances have a positive relationship, has drawn the attention of creativity scholars seeking to probe whether work-related stress is always detrimental to employee creativity, and thus harms the effectiveness of service organizations (Hon, 2011 and Hon and Leung, 2011). However, little is yet known about the circumstances under which this stress-creativity relationship may form, particularly in the hospitality industry (Hon and Kim, 2007). This paper seeks to overcome these limitations by integrating the voice theory, creativity, and stress literature to explore whether some contextual factors may serve as a boundary condition to explain the relationship between work stress and employee creativity in the service industry. Service employees who feel under pressure at work are, in essence, dissatisfied with the status quo. Stress can be a trigger for change when those who are unhappy with their current situation find new ways and creative approaches to improve their working conditions. Consistent with this reasoning, a number of scholars suggest that stress may actually have a positive influence on employee creativity and organizational effectiveness (Hon and Kim, 2007, Jex et al., 2001 and Talbot et al., 1992). The essence of creativity is finding new methods and better ways of approaching problems. Thus, it is important to examine the conditions under which employees’ experience of stress may actually lead to more creative performance, which ultimately benefits their organization. For instance, employees may experience various levels and types of work stress, such as the pressure to perform a lot of tasks within a short period of time or a failure to understand what is expected of them on the job. This might affect well-being and performance (O’Neil and Davis, 2010). Hence, this study seeks to identify the supervisor's role as the boundary condition under which work stress may actually lead to creativity. Identifying such a contextual factor is important for two reasons. Firstly, stress is very common in the hospitality industry, so employees who experience it may provide a powerful impetus for change in organizations by coming up with creative ideas for improvement. However, this is likely to occur only in certain situations; for example, where the employee decides not to leave his or her job in response to stress. Secondly, in the competitive modern business world, a degree of stress at work is inevitable, so managers should not view it as necessarily detrimental but instead as an opportunity to improve their human resource management (HRM) practices and training and development approaches. More specifically, this study examines the role of both positive and negative task feedback from a supervisor as a crucial condition for the relationship between work stress and employee creativity in the hospitality industry.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
To assess discriminant validity, we first conducted a CFA on the items comprising the two dimensions of work stress and the two forms of supervisory task feedback. Three baseline models were computed. The results showed a good fit for the four-factor model, where all items loaded on their intended constructs (χ2 = 433.26, df = 98, p < .01; CFI = .95; TLI = .96, RMSEA = .06). Next, we computed a two-factor model which combined the items for challenge- and hindrance-related stress, and combined the items of positive and negative task feedback from the supervisor. This two-factor model yielded a poorer fit to these data (χ2 = 635.38, df = 123, p < .01; CFI = .79; TLI = .80, RMSEA = .09). Finally, a one-factor model, where all items were constrained to load on a single factor, yielded a poor fit (χ2 = 2655.27, df = 135, p < .01; CFI = .51; TLI = .52, RMSEA = .11). The hypothesized four-factor model better fit these data than both the two-factor (Δχ2 = 202.12, Δdf = 25, p < .01) and single-factor (Δχ2 = 222.01, Δdf = 37, p < .01) models, which supported the discriminant validity of each variable (Andre and Werner, 2005). Table 1 presents the means, standard deviations, correlations, and reliability coefficients (in parentheses) of all the variables in the study. Except for negative task feedback, all the bivariate relationships indicate that the two dimensions of work stress and positive task feedback from supervisor were significantly related to employee creativity.To examine the interactional relationship between work stress and supervisory task feedback on employee creativity, we tested two hierarchical regression models (see Table 2 and Table 3) with positive or negative task feedback as moderator. Model 1 reports the results for the control variables, Model 2 adds the main effects of the two dimensions of work stress and each form of supervisory task feedback, and Model 3 adds the interaction terms for the above constructs. Model 3 also presents the results of the analysis to test whether the hypothesized moderation effects were significant.