آیا زورگویی ـ قربانی شدن آفلاین رفتار مزاحمت سایبری در میان جوانان را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد؟ استفاده از نظریه فشار عمومی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|30373||2014||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 31, February 2014, Pages 85–93
The current study attempts to examine the relationship between traditional bullyvictimization and cyberbullying behavior based on General Strain Theory perspectives. Offline bullyvictimization can create negative emotional strains. This negative strain combined with the anonymity in cyber space may lead youths to be engaged in cyberbullying behavior as the externalized response to the strain. Using longitudinal Korean National Youth Survey data, this study empirically tested the above theoretical explanation. First, this study found the declining trend of cyberbullying engagement among Korean youths. Secondly, consistent with GST, offline bully-victimization was significantly related to the cyberbullying engagement. Youths who were victims of traditional bullying showed a higher tendency of becoming cyberbullying assaulters with externalizing their strain in cyberspace.
The activities of youths in cyberspaces are growing rapidly via Internet services at home and through wireless mobile devices. In 2011, approximately 97.2% of households in South Korea had Internet access (OECD, 2012). Approximately 48% of Korean high-school students and 41% of Korean middle-school students reported that they had smartphones with Internet available anytime (Ministry of Gender Equality, 2012). This omnipresence of the Internet has improved our lives notably positively. We can use online maps, chat, play games, and access valuable information at anytime from anywhere. However, the Internet also exhibits negative aspects. Recently, attention has focused on Internet offenses such as cyberstalking, child pornography, and cyberbullying (Bhat, 2008 and Seto, 2002). Cyberbullying in particular has become a serious social problem. A number of media outlets have reported the consequences cyberbullying victimization, including suicide. For example, a middle-school student in Dae-gu, South Korea committed suicide in 2012 after experiencing severe bullying victimization both offline and online (Choson, 2012). Police found evidence of a long history of cyberbullying in the victim’s smartphone. Despite the high level of concern related to the occurrence of cyberbullying, there is a clear paucity of research on the subject (Slonje, Smith, & Frisén, 2013). Previous research on cyberbullying has reported on its prevalence, its frequency within specific groups, its negative impacts, and the relationships between traditional bullying and cyberbullying (Smith, 2012 and Tokunaga, 2010). A few studies have reported an overlap between traditional bullying and cyberbullying (Salmivalli & Pöyhönen, 2012). One study reported that those who were involved in traditional bullying also showed cyberbullying behavior (Raskauskas and Stoltz, 2007 and Smith et al., 2008). Another study found that those who were victimized by traditional bullying showed a high tendency for cyberbullying victimization (Katzer, Fetchenhauer, & Belschank, 2009). However, there is a clear lack of research regarding the relationship between traditional bullying victimization and cyberbullying behavior. Ybarra and Mitchell (2004) suggested that some cyberbullies may be victims of traditional bullying. However, no empirical evidence of this relationship has been presented until now (Smith et al., 2008 and Vandebosch and Van Cleemput, 2008). The current study attempts to examine the relationship between traditional bullying victimization and cyberbullying based on concepts borrowed from General Strain Theory. Offline bullying victimization can create negative emotional strain. This negative strain, in combination with the anonymity offered by cyberspace, may lead youths to become engaged in cyberbullying behavior as an externalized response to the strain. Using Korean National Youth Survey data, this study empirically tests the abovementioned hypothesis.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Previous research has indicated that bullying is an international issue that places great psychological and physical strain on victims. However, there has been limited research on the examination of traditional bullying and cyberbullying using criminological theory. The current study examines the relationship between traditional offline bullying victimization and cyberbullying among South Korean youths using GST as the theoretical framework. The current study used a five-year annual survey of the same panel of students that were selected from national random samples. Therefore, we were able to examine the trend of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying of Korean youths showed a decreasing trend similar to that of traditional offline bullying behavior (Solberg et al., 2007). Few studies have reported the prevalence of cyberbullying involvement. One study examined German youths’ cyberbullying behavior. Ribel et al. (2009) reported that 3.9% of their sample was engaged in cyberbullying behavior. Overall, the current study showed that 19% of students were engaged in cyberbullying behavior at least one time in the past 5 years. This result indicates that Korean youths are engaged in cyberbullying more frequently than German pupils. This finding may have resulted from a different student culture, web accessibility, and other contextual factors. Moreover, the difference in the operationalization of variables may have played a role in this respect. Tokunaga (2010) reported a curvilinear decreasing trend for cyberbullying victimization. In addition, involvement in cyberbullying was determined to continue through adulthood (Tokunaga, 2010). Because students were assessed only up to the 12th grade, the present study could not examine whether cyberbullying behavior continued into adulthood. However, wave 5 showed that 7% of high-school seniors were engaged in cyberbullying behavior, therefore demonstrating the possibility that cyberbullying may continue after high school. One contribution of the current study is the examination of the trend of cyberbullying engagement using a longitudinal panel study design. This study found an almost linearly decreasing trend of cyberbullying among Korean youths. This aging-out phenomenon is similar to that observed for traditional bullying. Previous research on cyberbullying has suffered from the lack of a theoretical explanation regarding the cause of cyberbullying (Tokunaga, 2010). Ybarra and Mitchell (2004) suggested a potential link between traditional bullying victimization and cyberbullying, but to date, little is known in this regard. The current study provided empirical support for this link by applying GST theory. Consistent with GST, offline bullying victimization is significantly related to cyberbullying engagement. Youths who were victims of traditional bullying showed a higher tendency of becoming cyberbullying assaulters by externalizing their strain in cyberspace. The current study contributes to the literature on cyberbullying by first demonstrating the empirical link between traditional bullying victimization and cyberbullying offense and second by providing a theoretical explanation for cyberbullying using GST. Other strain factors such as parental strain, study strain, and financial strain significantly increased the odds of being engaged in cyberbullying; however, the magnitude of these variables in explaining cyberbullying was much lower than that of the variables in explaining bullying victimization. In addition, the current study included low self-control and association with delinquent peers as control variables. These variables were significantly positively related to cyberbullying engagement. Therefore, the theoretical explanation for cyberbullying can be extended to other criminological theories. Future study is required to shed light on other theoretical explanations regarding cyberbullying. Overall, the current study empirically demonstrated that strain factors in GST explained youths’ cyberbullying behavior well. Future research should explore gender differences in cyberbullying because the current study found that gender is significantly related to cyberbullying in two models. Given the severity and context of bullying behaviors, it is necessary to develop strategies to manage bullying. Families, schools, and communities must be aware that cyberbullying and traditional bullying are harmful. Giving students, teachers, and parents more information and increasing awareness in general can assist in the deterrence of both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Such actions may help bullies to understand the error of their ways and the considerable impact that their actions may have in addition to giving victims a voice and offering them a way to stand up for themselves and not be fearful of the consequences of seeking help.