عاطفی، تنظیم هیجانی و عملکرد مدرسه در مدرسه کودکان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|38816||2002||19 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of School Psychology, Volume 40, Issue 5, September–October 2002, Pages 395–413
Abstract This research investigated the connections of middle school students' emotional dispositions and academic-related affect with their school performance. One hundred three 6th–8th grade students completed three self-rated assessments regarding: (a) their academic competency; (b) affective tendencies (both mood and emotion regulation); and (c) negative emotions experienced during school-related tasks. Teachers assessed students' positive and negative moods, and schools provided achievement test results and student grades as measures of cognitive ability/achievement and school performance, respectively. Results indicated that although students' emotion regulation, general affective dispositions, and academic affect were related to each other, each of these variables also made a unique significant contribution to students' GPA, over and above the influence of other cognitive contributors. Overall, these results provide support for the role of socio-emotional factors in students' school performance, while also clarifying some of the uniquely affective contributors (rather than relationships or goals) to that performance.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
. RESULTS Preliminary analyses revealed that there was no pattern of significant differences in the study variables as a function of either gender or grade level (only 1 of 16 analyses was significant). There were also no pattern of significant differences in the magnitude of any of the correlations among the measures (using Fisher Z tests) as a function of students' gender, grade level, or the school they attended. Consequently, correlations among the study measures (see Table 1) are shown for the entire sample. Overall, of the 28 correlations, 17 were significant (p<.05), including five of seven correlations involving the NAAS, and five of seven correlations involving GPA. Moreover, another six correlations were somewhat significant (p<.10). The numerous connections among the core variables suggest that few of these links are likely to be the result of type 1 errors. In fact, the mean magnitude of all correlations was r=.24, p<.05 (treating positive and negative correlations as equivalent). Table 1. Intercorrelations Among Cognition and Affect-Related Variables (n=103) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cognition-related GPA – 0.61*** 0.39*** 0.01 0.36*** −0.28** −0.16+ −0.31** Achievement scores – 0.30** 0.17* 0.21* −0.05 −0.20* −0.26** Academic competence – 0.28** 0.15+ −0.13+ −0.44*** −0.51*** Affect-related DOTS-R-emotion regulation – 0.19* −0.12 −0.10 −0.23** PANAS–positive mood – 0.12 −0.34*** −0.14+ PANAS–negative mood – 0.13+ 0.14+ DOTS-R–negative mood – 0.23* NAAS – *** p<.001. + p<.10. ** p<.01. * p<.05. Table options 3.1. Associations Among Affect-Related Variables (Hypothesis 1A) Students who had higher levels of emotion regulation were rated by teachers as having more positive moods (PANAS-Positive) and these students reported less negative academic affect (NAAS). In addition students who assessed themselves as having more negative overall moods (DOTS-R Mood) reported higher levels of negative academic affect, were rated by their teachers as less emotionally positive (PANAS-Positive), and were somewhat more likely to be rated by teachers as having negative moods (PANAS-Negative). Moreover, students who reported more negative academic affect were somewhat more likely to be rated by teachers as having more negative and fewer positive moods (PANAS-Positive). Somewhat surprisingly, however, teachers' rating of students' positive moods were not significantly related to their rating of students' negative moods. 3.2. Associations Among Cognition-Related Variables Several significant connections emerged among the cognition-related variables. The connection between GPA and achievement tests supports the traditional view that students' academic performance is related to their basic cognitive abilities (as measured by standardized achievement tests). Furthermore, students' perceptions of their academic competence were linked with both their GPA and achievement scores. Specifically, students who had more positive conceptions of their academic ability had higher GPAs and higher achievement scores. 3.3. Associations Between Affect-Related and Cognition-Related Variables (Hypothesis 1B) Teachers' ratings of students' positive and negative emotionality had a number of connections with cognition-related variables. Students with more positive moods had higher GPAs, achievement scores, and somewhat higher academic competence. In contrast, more negative moods were linked with lower GPAs and somewhat with lower academic competence. In terms of students' rating of their own moods, students with more negative moods perceived themselves as less academically competent, had lower achievement scores, and somewhat lower GPAs. Finally, students' negative academic affect was associated with all of the cognition-related variables. Students who perceived themselves as experiencing more negative affect during academic tasks had a poorer sense of their academic competence, lower achievement scores, and, finally, lower GPAs. 3.4. Regression Analyses Predicting Students' GPA (Hypotheses 2 and 4) Although students' affective disposition and emotion regulation were connected with their GPA and other cognition-related variables, it was also expected that the affective variables would be a significant predictor of their grade point average over and above the contributions of the cognitive variables. Moreover, it was expected that academic affect would make a unique contribution to GPA beyond the contribution of the other affective variables. To address these issues, we conducted a hierarchical regression (see Table 2). The cognition-related variables (academic achievement, academic competence) were entered on Step 1. This was followed by Step 2, in which all affect-related variables except negative academic affect were entered (i.e., PANAS-Negative, PANAS-Positive, and DOTS-R Mood, DOTS-R Emotion Regulation), and finally by Step 3 which included only negative academic affect (NAAS). The variables were entered in this order to determine whether affect makes an additional contribution to predicting students' GPA beyond the more traditional focus on cognitive abilities and competencies. Moreover, the NAAS was entered last to assess whether students' negative academic affect, in particular, had an influence on their GPA over and above the more general affective contribution made by their moods. Table 2. Cognition and Affect-Related Predictors of Students' GPA Predictors added at Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 B t B t B t Step 1 (R2=0.424, Fchange=36.83 ***) Achievement scores 0.55 6.80*** 0.52 7.34*** 0.50 7.16*** Academic competence 0.24 2.98** 0.31 3.93** 0.23 2.67** Step 2 (R2=0.572, Fchange=8.35 ***) DOTS-R-emotion reg. 0.21 3.01** 0.23 3.21** PANAS-positive mood 0.27 3.76*** 0.26 3.64*** PANAS-negative mood −0.23 −3.36** −0.27 −3.85*** DOTS-R-negative mood −0.18 −2.35* −0.19 −2.45* Step 3 (R2=0.574, Fchange=4.59 *) Negative academic affect −0.18 −2.14* R2 and Fchange are shown for the entire step; the B and t are for each predictor. The DOTS-R measures were self-ratings and the PANAS measures were teacher ratings. *** p<.001. ** p<.01. * p<.05. Table options As can be seen in Table 2, students' cognition-related abilities were a significant predictor of their GPA (Step 1), and academic achievement, academic competence were both independent significant predictors of GPA (i.e., after accounting for the effects of the other cognition-related variable). Furthermore, each of these cognition-related variables remained a significant predictor of students' GPA when the affect-related variables were entered on Steps 2 and 3. The affect-related variables, however, also made a significant contribution to GPA beyond the cognitive contribution (Step 2). Finally, as hypothesized, the NAAS (Step 3) was still a significant predictor of GPA even after accounting for the influence of all other cognition and affect-related variables; compared to their peers, students who reported more negative emotions in relation to routine school tasks performed worse in school and this was not the result of underlying cognitive differences (at least as measured in this study). All of the variables continued to be significant predictors, even at the final step, suggesting that the contributions of these variables were relatively independent. It is also noteworthy that these findings were not influenced by problems with multicollinearity. None of the correlations approached the .90 criterion that is considered problematic, and this was confirmed by the collinearity diagnostics: no variable had more than one variance proportion greater than .50 (Tabachnik & Fidell, 2001). Overall, the affect and cognition-related variables accounted for nearly 60% of the variance in students' grade point averages. 3.5. Interaction of Emotion Regulation and Negative Academic Affect on GPA (Hypothesis 3) It was originally hypothesized that students' negative academic affect might interact with their emotion regulation abilities in the prediction of their GPA. The emotion regulation×negative academic affect interaction term, however, was not significantly related to GPA (r=.12), and consequently, there was no support for this hypothesis. 3.6. Interaction of Negative Academic Affect and General Emotionality on GPA Although not originally hypothesized, it is possible that negative academic affect combines with more general aspects of students' emotionality to influence their school performance. For example, a child who experiences a combination of both negative academic affect and more general negative affectivity might be at special risk for school difficulties. Consequently, separate mood×negative academic affect interaction terms were created for each three mood-related variables (the PANAS-Positive, PANAS-Negative and DOTS-R Mood scales were not highly related enough to form a composite). No interaction term was significantly related to students' GPA, and thus, there was no evidence for a combined influence of negative academic affect and aspects of students' more general emotionality beyond the main effects of these affective variables.