مدیریت ریسک پروژه : درس های آموخته شده از محیط توسعه نرم افزار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|704||2004||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 24, Issue 11, November 2004, Pages 915–920
The challenges and realities in applying effective software risk management processes are difficult, in particular integrating the risk management processes into software development organizations. However, the benefits of implementing effective risk management tools and techniques in software development project are equally great. Current perceptions and emerging trends of various software risk management practices are reviewed and risks specific to software development projects are identified. Implementing effective risk management process will succeed by changing the organizational culture. This paper addresses lessons learned from implementing project risk management practices in software development environment.
Project failures are the result of the multiplicity of risks inherent in software project environment. Software development projects are collections of larger programs with many interactions and dependencies. It involves a creation of something that has never been done before although the development processes are similar among other projects. As a result, software development projects have a dismal track-record of cost and schedule overruns and quality and usability problems. Jiang and Klein (1999) find different types of risks will affect budget, user satisfactions, and system performance. Other studies indicate that 15 to 35% of all software projects are cancelled outright, and the remaining projects suffer from schedule slippage, cost overruns, or failure to meet their project goals (Boehm, 1991) (Klein, 1998). Time-to-market is the most critical factor for consumer in developing commercial software products. However the project success is difficult to predict because project scope is changed by continuous market requirements and resources are constantly being reallocated to accommodate latest market conditions. Projects for specific customers also have a large degree of uncertainty for requirements due to the customized technical attributes. As a result, software development engineers have high turnover rates among software development firms. For example, software managers in India perceived personnel turnover as their biggest source of risk (Boehm and DeMarco, 1997). Many software projects and programs involve multiple entities such as companies, divisions, etc., that may have certain interests. There is often a feeling of disconnection between software developers and their management, each believing that the others are out of touch with reality resulting in misunderstanding and lack of trust. Research shows that 45% of all the causes of delayed software deliverables are related to organizational issues (van Genuchten, 1991).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Although software risk management is a daunting task, organizations that implement effective processes proved to be successful, while those that fail in this effort will be unsuccessful. The nature of software projects creates many risks that must be managed diligently to avoid the common drawback of many projects. The perceptions and attitudes towards risk management activities compound difficult challenges for implementing a risk management strategy. Formal risk management process is recommended to manage complex issues associated with software development projects. Many risk management processes have been created to aid organizations, but integrating the processes into organizations was not successful. The theoretical aspects of the process must be reconciled with the practical challenges of the organization to implement risk management successfully. Effective risk management process will succeed by changing the organizational culture to motivate the individual. Cultural changes require time and repetition before they are firmly embedded into the organization.