مدیریت ریسک تامین از طریق گوانکسی در زمینه کسب و کار چینی : دیدگاه خریدار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|786||2012||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 139, Issue 1, September 2012, Pages 3–13
Previous research on supply risk management mainly focuses on the general risk management process based on case studies. In this study, we explore supply risk management via the relational approach in the Chinese business environment (i.e., guanxi) from the buying firm's perspective. We develop a theoretical model grounded in the social capital theory. Theorizing from the three forms of social capital (i.e., obligation, expectation, and trustworthiness; information channel; and norms and effective sanctions), we hypothesize that when a buying firm faces supply risk, it tends to form guanxi networks with its key supplier to reduce risk. We collect data to test the model by surveying manufacturing firms in Hong Kong and apply structural equation modeling to analyze the survey data. The research findings show that purchasing firms form guanxi networks with their key suppliers when they perceive supply risk. We also find that with guanxi development between the buyer and the supplier, both communication and supplier trust are improved, which in turn are positively related to supplier performance. This research contributes to theory by identifying the role of guanxi in supply risk management and to practice by providing insights to purchasing professionals that guide their effort in managing supply risk.
With increases in product and service complexity and global outsourcing, supply risk has increased and its sources have spread throughout the supply network. When dependence between firms deepens, firms are more exposed to risk from other firms (Hallikas et al., 2004 and Swink and Zsidisin, 2006). Supply management executives are under strong pressure to minimize the financial impact of supply disruptions such as delayed shipment and product shortages. There has been considerable research on supply risk management focusing on the general risk management process that comprises risk identification, assessment, treatment, and monitoring, but little work on managing supply risk through a relational approach such as guanxi (relationships). In this study, we examine whether the buying firm can manage its supply risk through the development of a guanxi relationship with its key supplier in the Chinese business environment. Supply risk management is a fairly new field of research and studies on this subject are scarce (Ojala and Hallikas, 2006). The traditional approaches to supply risk management include inventory management and multiple sourcing (Canbolat et al., 2008). These approaches protect an organization from the effects of supply risk due to uncertainty by building “buffers” against unexpected incidents. However, the approach of amassing buffer stocks has various disadvantages. Zsidisin and Ellram (2003) point out that while buffer stocks lead to increased transaction costs, long purchase order cycle times, poor productivity, and an environment characterized by rushed orders, the use of buffers is not related to the level of perceived supply risk. Previous research on supply risk management has been predominantly based on the agency theory and the institution theory, and has been limited to case studies. There is a lack of empirical research on supply risk management that uses the relational approach such as developing relationships with suppliers. Sheffi (2005) suggests that supplier relationships are important to a company's resilience and that poor supplier relationships can pose a major risk to any business. Giunipero and Eltantawy (2004) advise that to manage risk effectively in a supply chain, organizations should move to adopt a closer relationship with their key suppliers, as joint buyer–supplier efforts may reduce risk in the supply process. Hoyt and Huq (2000) argue that collaborative supply chain partnerships aid the development of flexibility, responsiveness, and low-cost/low-volume manufacturing skills, and can thereby reduce risk. Cousins and Menguc (2006) and Lawson et al. (2009) observe that the use of socialization and integration can reduce the perceived risk between the buyer and the supplier, as it increases information flow and transaction-specific investment of both parties and reduces the likelihood of opportunistic behavior. Batjargal and Liu (2004) remark that social relationships are increasingly serving as mechanisms to reduce uncertainty because the players are likely to hedge their risk by using private or particularistic channels. According to the sociological view, firms adopt networks as a mechanism to mimic the strategies of successful firms in situations of uncertainty (Park and Luo, 2001). Acquaah (2006) proposes that firms establish networking relationships to obtain resources and valuable information, and to acquire and exploit knowledge to overcome uncertainty in the business environment. Buyers and suppliers that work closely with one another tend to form social networks and develop relationships in uncertain situations to manage supply risk. In the Chinese culture, relationships are known as guanxi. Guanxi is also important in business. Previous studies have suggested that guanxi is developed in situations of uncertainty in the Chinese business environment. Fan (2002) points out that guanxi provides insurance against uncertainty and assistance when problems arise. Abramson and Ai (1999) find that guanxi is developed in the uncertain environment of foreign direct investment and that guanxi relationships based on trust and mutual benefits are an essential basis for business. Lee et al. (2001) confirm that a firm's decision-making uncertainty is positively related to its guanxi with its partners. The objective of this study is to examine whether the buying firm can manage its supply risk through the development of guanxi with its key supplier. This study fills several gaps in the literature on supply risk management. First, previous research methodologies for studying supply risk management mainly use case studies and there have been few empirical studies of supply risk management. Second, previous studies on supply risk management are mainly concerned with the general risk management process and there is a lack of research on supply risk management that uses the relational approach such as guanxi. Finally, the management theories that underpin past research on supply risk management are limited to the agency theory and the institutional theory. In this study, we employ empirical research grounded in the social capital theory to examine whether supply risk can be managed by the development of guanxi. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, we first give a concise review of previous studies on supply risk management. We then discuss the social capital theory and apply it to construct a theoretical model and formulate several hypotheses from the model. In Section 3, we introduce the research methodology and the measures of the key constructs. In Section 4, we present the data analysis and discuss the results. In Section 5, we conclude the research findings and discuss their academic and managerial implications. We also acknowledge the research limitations and make suggestions for future research on supply risk management.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
We empirically examine a theoretical model of a relational approach to supply risk management grounded in the social capital theory, which consists of perceived supply risk, guanxi, trust in the supplier, effective communication, and supplier performance improvement. The results support the model, indicating that buyers develop guanxi with their key suppliers if they perceive a supply risk from them. We further find that guanxi development between buyers and suppliers promotes effective communication and enhances the buyer's trust in the supplier. Finally, the results show that effective communication and trust in supplier each have a positive effect on supplier performance improvement. These findings constitute a new contribution to the literature on supply risk management through the development of guanxi relationships.