مدیریت زنجیره تامین پایدار : یک مطالعه موردی از سیستم های هوافضای بریتانیایی (BAe)
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|846||2012||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 140, Issue 1, November 2012, Pages 193–203
Sustainability is viewed as possessing environmental, economic and social dimensions. The sustainability approaches adopted by individual businesses and the supply chains to which they belong must include these facets. These three components of sustainability are collectively termed the “triple bottom line” or 3BL. The idea of a triple bottom line, which originated in the 1990s, implies attending to the traditional financial aspects of an organisation as well as to the social and environmental criteria. The economic aspect of the 3BL refers to profit making and attaining and sustaining competitive advantage through sustainability. The environmental dimension involves factors relating to climate change, global warming, air, land and water pollution (or preservation) and ozone layer depletion. The social aspect involves health and safety issues, community well-being, employment opportunities, charities, cultural sensitivities and requirements and organisational behaviour. As global warming, climate change and depletion of resources are on a rise alongside greater demand for improvement in business processes, economic standards and technology, it has become necessary to sustain processes along the value chain in order to contribute to sustainability. This paper examines the drivers of sustainability and related key features based on extant literature and a case study. An overview is given of the British Aerospace (BAe) Systems' sustainability initiatives and activities. On the basis of the BAe Systems case study, two resultant frameworks emerge that display the interdependence of the triple bottom line and the essential elements required for a sustainable supply chain.
Today's business world exhibits elements of intense competition, globalisation, as well as the quest for economic development and higher standards of living by all nations. This comes at a time of dwindling natural resources. Indeed, some writers have argued that relentless consumerism, and the consequent endless search for resources to satisfy the needs and wants of the growing world population that is becoming predominantly middle class, is surely increasing resource depletion and accelerating the negative effects of climate change. Climate change due to carbon emissions and the resultant global warming are on the rise, thereby threatening the ability to sustain the world for future generations. Outsourcing of products and services has become a key factor in the search for increased competitiveness. This involves the ever-increasing need to bring products and services from across various parts of the world, together with the need for political and economic adaptability and understanding of work culture and ethics. The crisis the world faces today regarding resource depletion and the attendant sharp decline of social well-being poses great challenges (but also opportunities) for supply chains. The need to sustain supply chains through energy efficient technologies, resource restoration, green procurement, recycling, carbon emission control, social responsibilities, employee recognition and overall triple bottom line protection has since been recognised by the academia and latterly by the various industries and sectors of the global economy. The globalisation of operations has propelled businesses to work together in dealing with natural disasters and depleting natural resources. Many businesses and their trading partners are currently restructuring their functions and processes into more sustainable shapes and forms (Norman and MacDonald, 2004, Markley and Davis, 2007 and Willard, 2002). Over the decades, supply chains have had significant impacts on the global society and its environment and economy. Because resources are fast dwindling, tomorrow's businesses will be awarded not only on the grounds of economic benefits but also on the basis of sustainability (Markley and Davis, 2007). Firms will win business and boost their share values not just on how well they perform on margins but also on how much they are prepared to protect the environment and adopt sustainable production and distribution initiatives. According to the Brundtland Report (1987) to the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987), “sustainable development (SD) is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” This generic definition, however, still carries a degree of uncertainty as to what is most appropriate to a sustainable supply chain. This paper adopts Norman and MacDonald's (2004) definition of a sustainable organisation, namely, that a sustainable supply chain is one that realizes development by acknowledging the social, economic and environmental aspects of its policies and actions and that while creating financial benefits and attending to stakeholder's preferences, supply chains must also care to shield the environment from the detrimental effects of their policies and actions. This paper seeks to address the gap in literature concerning the social and environmental practices of supply chains. Acknowledging the need to sustain resources for future uses, the study focuses on carbon emissions, stakeholder recognition, environmental standards and social welfare of organisations. Owing to the importance of recognising and supporting the interdependence of the triple bottom line, the paper is unique in the way that it investigates and reports from the existing literature the potential benefits of deploying sustainability in supply chains in an integrated manner. It also provides, by way of a case study of BAe Systems, a best practice guide for the deployment of sustainability in supply chains. The paper's findings and conclusions corroborate earlier studies that concluded that a strong focus on the integration of the social, economic and environmental facets of the supply chain could act as an answer for a sustainable future.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
There is a growing body of government legislation aimed at reducing and controlling the environmental impacts of economic activities. There is also rising customer awareness of environmental and social sustainability issues. These trends increase the pressure on supply chains to develop and deploy sustainable production and distribution systems. The deployment of any sustainability agenda in supply chains requires the formulation and operationalization of an integrated approach that addresses the relevant social, economic and environmental issues. Based on the frameworks presented in this paper, it has become apparent that the relational partnership and integration of the various elements of the supply chain can bring about economic benefits. It is essential for supply chains to acquire a thorough understanding of the complex correlation and interplay of factors that foster sustainability and company competitiveness. The world's societies and governments yearn for environment-friendly operations, products and services suited to consumer satisfaction, social well-being and compliance with regulations concerning the socio-environmental impacts of the supply chain. This paper has touched upon every facet needed for the enactment and deployment of sustainability in supply chains. It is hoped that by treating each dimension of the triple bottom line with due significance and in an integrated manner, the desire for a sustainable world thriving on economic benefits for all nations is highly achievable. A review of the sustainable supply chain literature and an analysis of the key sustainability initiatives of BAe Systems have demonstrated that the least attended dimension of sustainability (i.e. social factor) is among the key drivers of sustaining supply chains. Further, expanded, case studies are hereby suggested, to analyse the various sustainability initiatives of more organisations. This will facilitate the wider authenticity and applicability of the results of this paper. As a result of the study of BAe Systems' sustainability initiatives, it is also recommended that further research be undertaken on the methods and effectiveness of focal companies' modes of integrating suppliers in social and environmental programmes. A schematic detailing of each of the essentialities proposed in this paper for implementing sustainability in supply chains provides both a guide and framework for further research. A study of the challenges and impacts of social, economic and environmental aspects of implementing sustainable supply chains and the possible ways to addressing these challenges require further enquiry. The evolutionary nature of supply chains requires continuous attention to detail in improving best practices for sustaining the local and global operations of companies, irrespective of their industrial or business sector. This can further assist in creating greener and more productive outlooks and systems.