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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 140, Issue 2, December 2012, Pages 713–720
The aim of this paper is to identify areas for improving the level of supply chain management (SCM) execution. A conceptual model was developed that proposes internal and joint SCM conditions and the adoption of SCM processes as the main antecedents of SCM execution. Based on a survey of 174 senior managers representing large organizations structural equation modeling was conducted followed by a three-step importance-performance analysis. The results show that internal SCM conditions, specifically information technology and human resources, are the major drivers for improving the total level of SCM execution.
Kaihara (2001) has recognized supply chain management (SCM) as one of the best means to improve the performance of organizations. SCM is defined by Villa (2001) as the management of different types of physical, information and financial flows from the stage of raw material through to a final product where material suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and customers are connected. This complements the definition provided by the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (see www.cscmp.org). By being able to manage inbound supply and outbound distribution effectively, organizations gain competitive advantages as operations are processed faster, more flexibly and at less cost (Al-Mudimigh et al., 2004). This ability requires organizations to integrate SCM within their internal boundaries. Olhager and Selldin (2004) examined how Swedish organizations deal with specific supply chain issues while Kim (2007) analyzed different organizational set-ups and how these affect the performance of SCM. These investigations focused on the level of supply chain integration and subsequent SCM performance across different organization types. However, to our knowledge the question of how much SCM an organization has undertaken and what drives this level of SCM execution have not been examined sufficiently. Kotzab et al., 2006a and Kotzab et al., 2006b conducted some exploratory work by analyzing a sample of Danish organizations. Building on these preliminary findings, the aims of this paper are twofold: (1) identify the antecedents of SCM execution and (2) establish an analysis procedure that allows for prioritizing the identified antecedents with respect to their existing performance. For this purpose we first set up a conceptual model based on theory and literature that proposes certain antecedents of SCM execution. This model can be used to measure the level of SCM execution within organizations. Subsequently, we develop and apply a three-step importance-performance analysis approach (IPA) to demonstrate how the level of SCM execution within organizations may be increased. We then conclude the paper with a discussion and outlook section.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The execution of SCM follows a hierarchical order where internal SCM conditions affect joint SCM conditions that influence SCM-related processes. These collaborative business processes can be identified as the core antecedents that directly drive the execution of SCM. Internal and joint organizational conditions do not have the power to affect the execution of SCM directly. These findings support partly the conclusions from Boddy et al. (2000) and Mason and Leek (2008). However, the notions of Mentzer et al. (2001) or Lambert (2004) can be confirmed with respect to the importance of setting up the internal organizational conditions first, before entering into a supply chain partnership. Our results also demonstrate a rather low performance level of SCM within the analyzed organizations. In order to improve the level of SCM execution, the importance-performance analysis revealed that decision makers shall focus on internal SCM conditions as these have been proven to have the total impact on the execution of SCM and thus can be seen as the first order antecedent of SCM followed by joint organizational conditions. When looking at the internal SCM conditions resource-oriented items are shown to be important. They account for providing human and financial resources as well as adequate IT-systems and are able to master SCM-relationships and data exchange. The provision of proper information exchange guidelines and the establishment of internal SCM objectives are also crucial when trying to enhance the total level of SCM execution internally. Despite those improvement areas, it seems as if the fundament for SCM within the sample organizations is there since the expertise for setting up supply chain partnerships and the importance of cross-functional execution of business processes indicate a satisfactory performance level. Limitations of our study refer to country- and industry-specific conditions that may reduce the external validity and the transferability of our results to other markets or supply chain settings. The survey results reflect the views of large organizations in the investigated market since SCM execution is more of an issue for such supply chain partners, and can, therefore, be investigated accordingly. Further research needs to extend the view towards smaller players and test the model with respect to their role in supply chain partnerships. The findings reflect an aggregated view comprising the responses from a diverse kind of supply chain partners. This neglects, for example, the heterogeneity of responses from sets of informants representing different groups of supply chain partners. As a next step, moderators can be considered which influence the effects. Such moderators account for the affiliation to particular supply chain stages and industries, or to the size of supply chain partners. Despite our model being grounded in theory and literature the endogenous factors are explained to a certain degree only (see r2-values in Fig. 1). This calls for an extension of the model regarding other influencing factors. Such factors should reflecting soft dimensions of supply chain partnerships such as trust or power and environmental factors, e.g. the competitive structure the company is embedded in or the customer groups the companies target. Finally, the model and the enclosed importance performance analysis can be used as a roadmap for further research. The antecedent factors and drivers can be explored more by using qualitative research methods and/or case studies. This would provide more in depth insight into what actually drives the execution SCM in organizations.