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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|33859||2014||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 30, January 2014, Pages 307–314
Online cyber-bullying has become a frequent occurrence in organizations. To understand individual dispositions and the organizational factors that effect online cyber-bullying, the present study investigates the relationship among positive affect, the perceived organizational innovation climate, and psychological responses to cyber-bullying. The research samples for this study are staff members from the high-tech manufacturing industry in Northern Taiwan. A total of 396 responses were validated for confirmatory factor analyses, correlation coefficient, and structural equation modeling (SEM). The research results revealed that a positive affect (PA) has a positive influence on perceived organizational innovation climate. Moreover, the perceived organizational innovation climate has a negative influence on psychological responses to cyber-bullying. Finally, the experience of cyber-bullying was positively correlated to the psychological response of being cyber-bullied, i.e., the more an individual had experienced cyber-bullying, the higher psychological response. The results further indicated an interesting finding for the mediating role of perceived organizational innovation climate between positive affect and psychological responses to cyber-bullying. Therefore, organizations can enhance the positive affect for employees and foster an effective organization innovation climate, so those workers are better adaptable to cope with cyber-bullying.
Cyber-bullying has become another form of workplace bullying and has become an issue for workplace competition (Slonje, Smith, & Frisén, 2013). Cyber-bullying involves the use of information, communication devices, and services to bully, harass, or intimidate individuals or groups (Bryce, 2008). Unlike traditional bullying, the traumatized victims of cyber-bullying are incapable of controverting the bullying because they do not know the identities of the perpetrators. As a result, victims who suffer from cyber-bullying may have negative effects that may include violent behavior when they are under pressure. In this context, the reasons behind cyber-bullying deserve further exploration. A previous study indicated that most victims are subjected to cyber-bullying in the workplace because of personality traits (Ragozzino & O’Brien, 2009). Positive psychology arises from the need to add a positive side to the predominant historical focus on pathology in psychology (Kanis, Brinkman, & Perry, 2009). Positive affect have been shown to be related to many positive outcomes, such as extraversion, physical well-being, and adaptive coping (Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005). Therefore, the positive affect influence psychological responses to cyber-bullying is worthy of exploration. Heyman (2008) argued that people with a strong work ethic in a competitive work environment, such as the high-tech industry, become the targets of jealousy, and may experience intense bullying. Therefore, the emotional effects (i.e., psychological responses) of people with different levels of organizational innovation climate perception may be interplayed when confronted with bullying. It is plausible that meditation promotes psychological health because it facilitates individual insight into their self-feelings and lead to a more congruent self-evaluation (Vallacher & Nowak, 1994). In cases of positive self-esteem, this is not surprising. In fact, a positive self-evaluation may be perceived as acknowledging one’s strengths. In contrast, expressing a negative self-evaluation may seem maladaptive (Robins & Trzesniewski, 2005). Low self-esteem relates to a high level of emotional effects from cyber-bullying, as examined in this study. Research has revealed that when people are bullied in the workplace for an extended period, they often experience negative effects (Liefooghe, 2004 and Mikkelsen and Einarsen, 2002). Thus, it would be helpful to know whether depressed individuals engage in the positive affect with the intention of reducing the intensity of being the recipient of cyber-bullying and the psychological effects post cyber-bullying along with those high-tech employees in Taiwan.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This research probed into dimensions including the positive affect, perceived organizational innovation climate, and the awareness of workplace cyber-bullying to analyze the correlation between each variable. To summarize, the probability of the occurrence of cyber-bullying incidents was not high in the high-tech industry. It seemed that the majority of respondents had experienced serious psychological and social reactions affect to their organizational climate if they felt being workplace cyber-bullied. Regardless of the type of experience of being the recipient of cyber-bullying, every bullied victim felt physiologically and mentally hurt. Individuals felt mentally hurt when the cyber-bullying was more frequent. This research used online questionnaires for analysis and from the collected material; we discovered that this approach had a positive correlation to those individuals who were cyber-bullied. When recruiting prospective employees, we advise companies to conduct a test before hiring to understand the positive affect reactions of each prospective employee. After that, they can enhance their perception of organizational innovation climate. However, positive affect are fundamental criteria in the awareness of cyber-bullying, in this sense, this concept coincides with the speech Churchill gave on October 28, 1944 “We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us”. It implied that when the company creates a healthy organizational innovation climate, it would thereafter promote higher levels of employee positive moods to handle this hardship if it should ever arise. Workplace cyber bullying, in this study, is looked at from a psychological perspective caused by the organization itself, i.e., by structural and other problems within the organization. The results suggest that organizations should define what cyber bullying is and how employees should act in the case of cyber-bullying as parts that should be included in the organizations plan of action to prevent cyber-bullying. An organization is also obligated to have distinct routines on how to act if bullying exists within the organization. This research selected employees from 10 high-tech manufacturing companies in Northern Taiwan as samples. A future study may expand the range of different industrial sectors. As shown in the study findings, cyber-bullying often occurs in the high-tech industry. If we want to understand the effects of the experience of being the recipient of cyber-bullying on other research variables, the scope of the research variables needs to be extended to individual characteristics. Calvete, Orue, Estévez, Villardón, and Padilla (2010) studied the association between cyber-bullying behavior and personality. They found that cyber-bullying had a high correlation with proactive aggression, exposure to violence, and less prosocial behavior. In this sense, researchers could explore in-depth the situations and personalities of bullied staff in order to understand cyber-bullying and its effects.