نیکوتین به طور متفاوتی مانع از رفلکس آشفتگی صدا در آمریکایی های آمریکایی و قفقاز آمریکایی سیگاری می شود؟
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Addictive Behaviors, Volume 33, Issue 12, December 2008, Pages 1521–1528
Research suggests that there are racial disparities in smoking behaviors, cessation rates, mortality, and morbidity. However, little is known regarding racial differences in affect regulation by smoking. The purpose of this study was to examine racial differences in the effects of nicotine deprivation and administration on smokers' startle responding to smoking and affective cues. 104 African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) smokers completed 4 laboratory sessions crossing nicotine deprivation (12-hour deprived vs. nondeprived) with nicotine nasal spray (active vs. placebo). Participants viewed affective (positive, neutral, and negative) and smoking slides while startle probes were administered. The results showed that relative to placebo, AA smokers given nicotine spray exhibited significantly lower startle responses when they were exposed to smoking cues and CA smokers given nicotine spray exhibited significantly lower startle responses when they were exposed to negative and neutral cues. Although nicotine suppresses startle responding in both AA and CA smokers, the effect is modulated by different cue conditions, suggesting that there may be racial differences in components of smoking motivation.