بررسی مسائل زیست محیطی و اجتماعی در سیاست حمل و نقل، برنامه ریزی و برنامه ریزی در برزیل: تجزیه و تحلیل سیستم
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 179, 1 April 2018, Pages 674-689
The need to consider environmental and social issues on a par with economic concerns in policy, plan, programme and project making in order to achieve sustainable development has been widely recognized. However, to date there has been no adequate implementation, and economic issues are frequently prevailing over other aspects. In many developing and emerging economies, a perceived urgency to promote economic growth frequently means that environmental and social costs of development are overlooked. It is within this context that this paper explores the consideration of environmental and social issues in transport policy, plan and programme (PPP) making in Brazil, an emerging economy which over recent years has invested heavily in its transport infrastructure. Aiming at establishing the extent to which environmental and social issues are considered and identifying the barriers for better practice, legal and institutional frameworks for transport PPP making, the substantive focus of PPPs as well as perceptions of actors involved in their preparation are investigated. Results show that whilst the need to respect environmental and social issues is recognized in sectoral guidelines and underlying values, in practice they are poorly considered. Main constraints to a better consideration of sustainable development in transport PPP making include the lack of instruments for a systematic consideration, the nature of existing PPP making processes and the dominance of political and economic interests. Moreover, suggestions for improvement are limited and mainly relate to external pressures. In this context, Strategic Environmental Assessment in particular would need to be introduced as an instrument for a more rigorous and clearly prescribed consideration of environmental and social issues.