انگیزه آموزش بزرگسالان: امید موفقیت، ارزش و نقش حافظه عاطفی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|34402||2012||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 22, Issue 5, October 2012, Pages 610–617
The present study tested the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation. Motivation was measured as the anticipated reaction (AR) of German students (N = 300) to receiving their instructions in English as a new learning opportunity. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Expectancies of success and values from school predicted current expectancy and value, which, in turn, accounted for about 64% of variance in AR. In addition, we explicitly tested the hitherto neglected role of affective memories as a major precursor of value, expectancy of success, and AR. Results show a small direct effect of only negative affective memories on AR, leading to a significant incremental prediction of AR in addition to expectancy and value. Thus, motivation and experiences at secondary school appear to play a crucial role in adults' learning motivation, mediated by expectancy and value specific to the learning opportunity.
Educational psychology rarely focuses on adult learning. However, adult learning is gaining more and more importance due to current societal developments (e.g., the call for life-long-learning, OECD, 2005). Adults' learning motivation can be viewed as a necessary prerequisite for adult learning (Courtney, 1992 and Wlodkowski, 2008). In order to promote adult learning, it is important to know more about the motivational factors that influence the decision to access a learning opportunity. Theoretical models from adult education research propose expectancy-value approaches to explain adults' learning motivation (i.e., participation in adult education; Courtney, 1992 and Schmidt, 2009). Also, empirical research on participation in non-mandatory professional development and training activities draws on self-efficacy (i.e., expectancy of success) and attitude (i.e., value; Salas and Cannon-Bowers, 2001 and Tharenou, 2001). Thus, we suggest that expectancy-value theory (Eccles, 1983, Eccles, 1994 and Wigfield and Eccles, 2000) can be applied to explain adults' motivation to utilize a learning opportunity. According to this theory (Eccles, 1983 and Wigfield and Eccles, 2002), learning motivation can be viewed as a function of expectancy of success (i.e., “Can I pass the course?”) and a subjective value of the task or learning opportunity (i.e., “Do I want to take the course and why?”). These two basic factors are themselves influenced by a variety of preceding factors, in particular, socializing agents, psychological characteristics, individual beliefs, and affective memories ( Wigfield & Eccles, 2000; later affective reactions and memories, Eccles, 2005). In this paper, we applied expectancy-value theory (Eccles, 1983, Eccles, 1994, Wigfield and Eccles, 2000 and Wigfield and Eccles, 2002) to help explain adult students' motivation to use a new learning opportunity. Specifically, adult students at a German university were asked to rate their acceptance of and intended engagement in courses with English as a medium of instruction. Since previous education is the best predictor of participation in further education (Kuwan and Thebis, 2005 and OECD, 2005) we conceptualized previous expectancies and values (i.e., learning motivation) developed in secondary school as antecedents of adults' learning motivation. Moreover, we included a measure of emotions associated with prior experience, which is considered to be a central aspect of adult learning (e.g., Knowles et al., 2005 and Merriam, 1994) and expectancy-value theory (i.e., affective memories; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000). Thus, our study was designed (1) to test the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation using an undergraduate sample and (2) to extend empirical research on expectancy-value theory by exploring the role of affective memories as antecedent of learning motivation.