نگاه دقیق تر به مهارت های فراشناختی کودکان: مورد اشکال زدایی اکتشافی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|117943||2018||19 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 172, August 2018, Pages 130-148
The primary aim of this study was to document the developmental course of distinctiveness effects throughout childhood. Specifically, we examined whether the reduction in false recognition rates that is traditionally observed in children after distinctive encoding could be explained not only by enhanced discrimination between studied and new items but also by the implementation of a conservative response criterion resulting from the use of metacognitive expectations about the quality of memories (i.e., distinctiveness heuristic). Two experiments were conducted in which children in three age groupsâ4â5, 6â7, and 8â9â¯yearsâwere asked to study a set of items presented in either pictorial (distinctive) or word (less distinctive) form. In Experiment 1, pictures and words were displayed in two separate lists, a design that is supposed to favor reliance on the distinctiveness heuristic. In Experiment 2, the two types of stimuli were presented within the same list, a design that is supposed to make using the metacognitive heuristic ineffective. Overall, Experiments 1 and 2 provide evidence that children as young as 4â¯years rely on the distinctiveness heuristic to guide their memory decisions, resulting in a reduction in the false recognition rate when items are presented using a pure-list design (Experiment 1) but not when they are presented using a mixed-list design (Experiment 2). The implications of these findings for our understanding of the development of metacognition and the involvement of metacognitive skills in childrenâs memory performance are discussed.