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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|10655||2001||19 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 72, Issue 2, 20 July 2001, Pages 181–199
We present the results of a 1997 study exploring the manufacturing strategy of 46 plants (foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) and wholly Chinese-owned enterprises (WCOEs)) located primarily in the Beijing–Tianjin area. Semi-structured interviews using a questionnaire in English and Chinese were employed to: (i) identify current activity (practices and emphases) and future trends in manufacturing, (ii) compare and contrast FIEs and WCOEs, and (iii) identify how practices correspond with performance on various competitive objectives and overall performance. Fundamental differences were found between FIEs and WCOEs both in terms of practice and priorities (the former emphasizing competition on time/delivery, and the latter various aspects of quality).
Following calls for more “grounding” to undergird and advance the field of Operations Strategy (e.g., ), a stream of empirical research into manufacturing strategy has emerged in the past decade. Most of this work is based on single- or multi-industry surveys, generally in developed nations. There is a need for understanding manufacturing strategies (priorities, practices, and performance) in developing nations, and to compare such strategies with those in the developed world. In this paper we present the results of an exploratory investigation into the manufacturing strategy of firms from a variety of industries in China, representing both Chinese-owned and foreign-invested companies. In the survey of 46 plants (39 in the Beijing–Tianjin region of NE China) which took place from August to November 1997, we sought to define current practices and trends and to highlight any differences between foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) and wholly Chinese-owned enterprises (WCOEs). FIEs are either wholly foreign-owned enterprises (WFOEs), or joint ventures (JVs) with capital-contributions from the foreign partner ranging between 25% and 99.9% . The ownership of WCOEs is either by the state (7), collective (3), or private (3). In their own right, FIEs and WCOEs are each attracting a great deal of interest at present. The performance of FIEs is of great importance, with foreign direct investment (FDI) in China reaching a record high of USD45.3 billion in 1997. The benefits of this investment include the transfer of both technology and management skills – directly through JVs, and indirectly through increased competition with the state sector. One would also hope that success in FIEs will mitigate some of the costs of reform in the state-owned sector, which has been under considerable pressure to perform as government funding decreases .
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
While this study should be seen as exploratory in nature, and caution placed on extending the results to other regions of China (there are many “Chinas” – with quite different business environments between Provinces in the Southeast, the Northeast, and the Interior – e.g., see , it provides a helpful platform to view the major differences in the operations and strategies of foreign and locally-owned firms in China. The results should prove valuable to both FIEs and WCOEs. In recent years numerous authors have offered counsel on how foreign enterprises should approach the Chinese market (e.g., see , ,  and ). For FIEs, managing the complexities of operating in a new, and at times difficult, environment can prove insurmountable (indeed, many firms have withdrawn their manufacturing presence). It is our impression that many of the firms that have not survived, as well as some that are currently struggling, have generally viewed entry into China as a means to support a strategy of low cost. Many have been disappointed to find this strategy difficult to pursue (and recent news  that from 01 January 1999 China began phasing out preferential tax treatment for FIEs in its 44 economic and technology development zones will make this kind of strategy more difficult). However, it appears that more successful FIEs have grasped the opportunity to design and develop manufacturing and distribution systems and strategies more appropriate to China. Indeed, others have gone further – viewing their China strategies as providing learning and systems which will assist them enter other Asian markets (through manufacturing and/or marketing). The attention FIEs are paying to time and delivery performance should not go unnoticed by WCOEs, particularly when their practices are so divergent. With the current emphasis on improving the financial performance of state-owned enterprises, it may be worth investing in initiatives which can concurrently improve delivery and quality. Heeding the call of the ancient sage SunZi that “The essence of war is speed”  may prove to be a prudent strategy for enterprises which continue to lose (domestic) market share to FIEs. While such a strategy would also provide additional export opportunities, some of the firms we suggested this to expressed greater interest in recovering their domestic sales. For foreign firms operating in China, there is a vital need for expatriate manufacturing personnel to be given opportunities to meet with other managers in similar circumstances. With a short tenure (typically lasting only a few years – see ), many find themselves reinventing the wheel. A manufacturing forum could address issues such as market direction, but it may be just as vital to provide advice on how to train farmers, or where to find stuff (e.g. one manager described how, after searching for two months, he finally discovered grease nipples – in a fishing tackle shop! [it seems that local engineers knew what they were but never used them]. Similarly, one firm uncovered drafting boards – in a sports store!).