چارچوبی برای برون سپاری تولید: مفاهیم استراتژیک و عملیاتی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|10675||2002||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Industry, Volume 49, Issue 1, September 2002, Pages 59–75
Over the last decade, outsourcing has proved to be a relevant strategic option for companies narrowing their operations to focus on core competencies. This paper analyses the process of outsourcing manufacturing to cost-efficient and innovative suppliers in support of internal resources and capabilities. A scientific reference model founded on manufacturing strategy is proposed to help choose the right level of analysis and steer the research process. From this, a system model is developed to enable identification of the production system elements and internal support functions. Finally, a framework that links the phases of the entire outsourcing process to strategic planning is synthesised. The framework includes a logical sequence of key activities with built-in performance measures and expected output for each of the phases. The research methodology combines theory study with case study and action research in Aalborg Industries, which operates in the heavy industry. Thereby, the research pursues both academic and industrial application.
Entering the third millennium, most industrial sectors face intensified conditions both in the marketplace and within the corporate boundaries. The customers are putting higher demands and constraints on their upstream linkages. Formerly, the customers focused mainly on low total systems cost, high quality and good delivery performance. Presently, they also expect short product life cycles and time-to-market, innovativeness and customisation . The companies and their suppliers are experiencing the emergence of a global economy and rapidly changing markets. At the same time, the complexity of products and technologies is increasing and their functionalities are expanding . Globalisation and technological innovation appear to be common denominators of these marketing and corporate business challenges. From a corporate strategy point of view, they add new competitors and markets and put strong pressure on companies’ competitiveness and profitability. From a combined business and functional strategy viewpoint, they call for improved organisational adaptability and more flexible and advanced systems relative to manufacturing, logistics, engineering, information and process technology and the like  and . Table 1 specifies the wide range of trends in the industry and their implications. Besides, the table includes examples of initiatives that may be taken to proactively meeting the trends and implications. It is noticed that the trends, implications and initiatives are not fully consistent in the sense that certain interdependencies and overlaps exist in practice. Nevertheless, they represent the problem context of the paper.As indicated in the table, globalisation and technological innovation present a particular paradox. Technology facilitates the integration of business operations between separate companies while the rapid market changes on a global scale increase the investment risk in new technology, because it might become obsolete within the payback period . In the table, I take a step further by arguing that the rapid development of information and process technology may reduce the need for middle management based on the rationale that some operating procedures may be automated. This contributes to obtaining flexibility and cost savings, and links to the trend of downsizing. Lewin and Johnston  support this point stating that while downsizing initiatives were initially aiming merely at increasing profitability by reducing costs, they now also reflect the search for more flexibility (cf. automation). The advances of information and process technology, thus, largely prompt the gradual change within the corporate boundaries. In consequence of the internal and external conditions given above, companies must be able to change their organisation, operations, product portfolios, customer segments, etc. rapidly and efficiently as well as on a continual basis. This may involve a new approach to the strategic planning process in which production and operations management and industrial marketing are seen as integral parts. There is evidence to suggest that the success of outsourcing depends largely on such inside-out perspective which assigns production strategic considerations the same importance as market strategic considerations ,  and . Hence, the frequently used term “paradigm shift” is highly legitimate at present, not only for the industry, but also for the scientific problem addressed in this paper.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper documents 4 years of research on outsourcing within the settings of the production system and relevant support functions. However, we still lack knowledge and recognition to be able to explain every facets of the outsourcing process. One might take a step further by claiming that research into this particular field will continue for an indefinite time. Why might this be the case? The main argument would be that outsourcing is a dynamic and recurring process which largely rests on the propositions of socio-technical theory, including open systems theory and contingency theory. These three theories are founded on the same scientific paradigm within social system theory, which is called “functionalist”  and . Burrel and Morgan explain that functionalist is highly pragmatic in orientation, concerned to understand society in a way which generates knowledge that can be put to use. Moreover, functionalist is usually committed to a philosophy of social engineering as a basis of social change. Hence, it seems reasonable to assume that one static/unambiguous road map relating to outsourcing of manufacturing, which meets the requirements of every sectoral pattern, cannot be developed. While the literature review provides a state-of-the-art knowledge base on outsourcing, the empirical inquiry confines itself to one internationally established company in the heavy industry. Or maybe the word “confines” is inappropriate. At least, I hope that the combination of theoretical absorption, longitudinal case study and systemic action research contributes to accentuating the scientific legitimacy of the project as a whole. This combined methods approach essentially pursues conceptual understanding, optimisation of organisational performance and prescriptive tools and techniques, which challenges the traditional logic behind statistical generalisation. In the paper, primarily the strategic and conceptual aspects of the outsourcing process were addressed. From this, a framework for outsourcing that focuses on start-up, operations and maintenance of the process was developed. The aim was to take outsourcing theory a step further towards industrial practice by providing value-added guidance to managers responsible for or interested in the development and implementation of strategic outsourcing. This involved among other things identification of a wide range of outsourcing incentives and pitfalls. Nevertheless, operational details are a prerequisite for choosing the right sourcing strategy, of which outsourcing is only one. In general, this calls for an approach to sourcing strategy which complements the one presented in this research. This includes moving focus from global sourcing, product supply and corporate development (cf. corporate/business strategy) to problems of materials management, planning and control, etc. at the factory level or the shop floor level (cf. functional strategy). In other words, we need supplementary models and methods which help us to ask questions like: • How do we identify the operational activities, decision variables and performance measures that provide the input to the outsourcing framework? • What are the important issues specific to contract negotiation, project execution and transition of the manufacturing task? • How do we establish precise measurement and control points? • How do we rationally prioritise one choice of sourcing strategy before another? • What opportunities and constraints result from this prioritisation? Such a perspective would imply that sourcing strategy is viewed as a bottom-up redesign of underlying processes rather than a top–down management tool to ensure strategic direction and employee commitment. That is, a “reverse” perspective of the one which has largely been applied in this research. Future research should also demonstrate how the production system and each of the support functions explicitly influence the phases/decision variables of outsourcing. Besides, the interconnections between the internal and external workflow interfaces should be visionalised. As to the external workflow interfaces, the research has failed to produce in-depth structural and processual knowledge from a supplier standpoint in so far as no interviews with present or potential outsourcing partners of Aalborg Industries have been performed at the present stage. Thus, the research would inevitably benefit from applying a supplier perspective on the outsourcing process as a supplement to the buyer perspective already implemented. In addition, organisational forms likely to fit different types of buyer–supplier relationship—given situational factors—should be illuminated. This involves verification of what socio-technical competencies are called upon in order to absorb the dynamic and recurring nature of outsourcing. Finally, the research results are undergoing evaluation and refinement within Aalborg Industries. The next step would be to examine their applicability in other heavy industrial companies and in sectors other than the heavy industry.