عوامل مؤثر بر تدوین استراتژی تولید: یک مطالعه طولی در هنگ کنگ
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|10706||2004||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 24, Issue 2, February 2004, Pages 121–137
Recent developments of the World Trade Organisation and other international trade agreements have forced industries worldwide to face a new era of intense global competition. Manufacturers will have to compete effectively not only in the local context, but in wider regional and global marketplaces. Global competition has offered numerous opportunities and problems for the manufacturing industry. This paper investigates the determinants of strategy formulation (SF) in manufacturing enterprises and consolidates the empirical findings of a longitudinal study from 1994–2001 in Hong Kong. It also discusses the experiences from some leading Hong Kong manufacturers in managing the competitive pressures and gaining sustainable competitive advantages. The paper attempts to complement the literature base of SF practices with empirical evidence. The findings presented address the identification of success factors and problematic areas that provide manufacturers with guidance and references for formulating viable strategies to meet their business and operations needs.
The rapid and sustained economic growth experienced throughout the Asia Pacific region over the last few decades has led many economists to label the 21st century as the Asia Pacific century (Australia National University, 1995 and OECD, 1997). Hong Kong, being a newly industrialised economy in the Asia Pacific region, has grown fast but erratically. It has a unique environment with many opportunities but also challenges for the future (Burn, 1997 and Enright et al., 1997). Hong Kong has a Chinese-majority population, a long-standing British colonial heritage, and was briefly occupied by the Japanese during the Second World War. Despite a scarcity of natural resources, it initially emerged as a significant trading port but became a low-cost, export-oriented manufacturing center by the 1960s. Over the past four decades, Hong Kong has transformed its industry from labour-intensive practices to capital- and technology-based developments, and has moved from a low-cost manufacturing base to a high value-added, design- and service-oriented manufacturing centre (HKID, 1996a, Berger and Lester, 1997, Enright et al., 1997 and Martinsons, 1998. Based on the 1984 Sino–British Joint Declaration, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) assumed political control of Hong Kong in July 1997. It has promised to maintain the existing economic, legal, and social systems until 2047 under the principle of “one country, two systems.” Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the PRC. The unique environment of Hong Kong has brought manufacturing enterprises both opportunities and problems. For instance, Martinsons (1998) argues that free trade and information flows, efficient telecommunications, property rights protection, and the technology management expertise are intended as critical factors if Hong Kong is to remain an attractive conduit for and recipient of technology transfer, and if its businesses are to sustain their fast-follower and focus strategies, synergise technological innovations from China and the West, and capitalise on the vast new domestic market. In order to sustain a competitive advantage, Hong Kong enterprises must identify their core competencies and success factors and integrate them to formulate viable strategies (Pun et al., 2000a and Sethi and King, 1998). The strategy formulation (SF) process provides a fundamental framework through which an organisation can simultaneously assert its vital continuity and facilitate its adoption to the changing environments (Hax and Majluf, 1996). This paper incorporates the empirical evidence from a longitudinal study on strategy formulation practices that was conducted in Hong Kong from 1994–2001, and discusses the changes of strategic thinking of manufacturing enterprises in responding to the opportunities and problems encountered in industries. Assorted secondary data from literature and private firms have been collected and synthesised. Insights and opinions from managerial personnel responsible for formulating and implementing strategies in their organisations have also been gathered. The success factors, problematic areas and the priority of strategy choices are discussed.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The findings from the longitudinal study contribute to the identification of success factors and problematic areas that could help manufacturers to determine their strategy choices with particular reference to the Hong Kong manufacturing environment during the period 1994–2001. The study identified several strategic prerequisites in formulating viable strategies, including a specific company’s mission and objectives, business requirements, competitive environments, organisational resources and technology levels. A circumscribed set of strategic decision areas must be aligned with competitive priorities of cost, quality, delivery and flexibility. These areas are also related to: (1) business process redesign; (2) capacity, facilities and integration; (3) production, inventory and quality systems; (4) human resources development; and (5) business expansion and retreat. The study results show that good product/service quality and customer services were the key determinants that helped Hong Kong enterprises to gain, attract and retain their customers. Therefore, in responding to the pressures from keen local and overseas competitors, increasing costs of production/operations, and insufficient research and development, Hong Kong enterprises considered product/service quality improvement, new product development, product modification, market development, strengthening R&D, and staff education and training as preferred strategy choices. Some recent studies (e.g., Berger and Lester (1997), and Enright et al. (1997)) concluded that Hong Kong’s past success has been achieved by the hard work and initiative of its people and through the confidence that the rest of the world places in the territory. At present, many Hong Kong enterprises are in their learning process to becoming more technology-advanced and service-oriented. Their future success relies on how enterprises sustain their viable strategies, synergise technological innovations from China and the West, and capitalise on the vast new local and overseas markets. A thorough strategy formulation practice could help manufacturers determine their corporate directions (e.g., cost leadership, strategic alliance, and technological advancement), and establish a strong link between strategies and enhanced enterprise performance. Manufacturing enterprises in Hong Kong or elsewhere are unique, with distinctive biographies, strengths and opportunities. They have to determine their competitive positions and formulate strategies. Those that can manage strategy formulation effectively will find themselves in an excellent position vis-à-vis their competitors. The longitudinal findings presented and experiences drawn from Hong Kong enterprises could provide manufacturers with some practical clues or a frame of reference for the identification of key determinants for strategy formulation, as well as the management of competitive advantages. Built upon the study findings, future research using comparative studies and case studies is suggested to investigate the detailed SF processes and their determinants in manufacturing enterprises across different sectors not only in Hong Kong, but in wider regional and global contexts.