هنگامی که فشار بالا، محدودیت های سیستم و یک مأموریت عدالت اجتماعی با هم مواجه می شوند: تجزیه و تحلیل اجتماعی و ساختاری خدمات اجتماعی بخش اورژانس
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Social Science & Medicine, Volume 178, April 2017, Pages 104-114
The emergency department (ED) can be a critical intervention point for many patients with multifaceted needs. Social workers have long been part of interdisciplinary ED teams. This study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of social worker-patient interactions and factors influencing social work services in this setting. This paper reports a qualitative content analysis of social work medical record notes (NÂ =Â 1509) of services provided to trauma patients in an urban, public, level 1 trauma center and an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews with ED social workers (NÂ =Â 10). Eight major social work roles were identified: investigator, gatekeeper, resource broker, care coordinator, problem solver, crisis manager, advocate, discharge planner. Analyses revealed a complex interplay between ED social work services and multi-layered contexts. Using a social-ecological framework, we identified the interactions between micro or individual level factors, mezzo or local system level factors and macro environmental and systemic factors that play a role in ED interactions and patient services. Macro-level contextual influences were socio-structural forces including socioeconomic barriers to health, social hierarchies that reflected power differentials between providers and patients, and distrust or bias. Mezzo-level forces were limited resources, lack of healthcare system coordination, a challenging hierarchy within the medical model and the pressure to discharge patients quickly. Micro-level factors included characteristics of patients and social workers, complexity of patient stressors, empathic strain, lack of closure and compassion. All of these forces were at play in patient-social worker interactions and impacted service provision. Social workers were at times able to successfully navigate these forces, yet at other times these challenges were insurmountable. A conceptual model of ED social work and the influences on the patient-social worker interactions was developed to assist in guiding innovative research and practice models to improve services and outcomes in the complex, fast-paced ED.