سیستم های تولید انعطاف پذیر و ساختار درونی شرکت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|15310||2002||36 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Industrial Organization, Volume 20, Issue 8, October 2002, Pages 1061–1096
We investigate the relationship between the internal structure of the firm and the extent of flexibility of its technology. We demonstrate that increased vertical separation within the firm as implied, for instance, by subcontracting or by additional vertical layers of management yields investment in a more flexible technology. In contrast, increased horizontal separation as implied by lack of cooperation among different (horizontal) divisions within the firm has ambiguous implications on flexibility. When divisions of the organization confront significantly different levels of uncertainty, horizontal separation enhances technological flexibility. Otherwise, when the extent of uncertainty confronting different divisions is comparable it is cooperation that yields greater flexibility of the technology. We show that the attributes of the technology selected by a given firm may depend upon the internal structure of its competitor if those attributes can be observed by the competing firm. In particular, the firm chooses a less flexible technology if its competitor is vertically separated rather than integrated.
The face of manufacturing has been changing significantly in the late twentieth century. Flexible manufacturing systems, robotization, computer integrated manufacturing and ‘just in time’ systems have been considered essential in guaranteeing success in the market place. The shift to flexible manufacturing has been accompanied by new organizational strategies and workforce management policies. Greater reliance on teamwork and cooperation among different functions within the firm as well as increased utilization of independent suppliers and subcontractors have been key ingredients of the organizational changes. These two adjustments of the organizational form are consistent with the flexible, general purpose type of investments that modern manufacturing entails. The flexibility, which facilitates frequent adjustments of the production line and, an extended product mix, requires greater coordination among traditionally separate functions of design, engineering and marketing, thus yielding the increased reliance on teams (see Milgrom and Roberts, 1990). The general purpose type of investment reduces the extent of asset specificity in relationships with independent contractors. Since investment incentives are improved, as a result vertical separation becomes a more attractive option, as explained in the transaction cost literature (Klein et al., 1978 and Tirole, 1986; or Williamson, 1986).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
We have investigated the implication of the internal structure of the firm upon the extent of flexibility of its technology. We found that increased vertical separation within the firm, as implied, for instance, by subcontracting or by additional vertical layers of management yields investment in a more flexible technology. In contrast, the implication of increased horizontal separation upon technological flexibility is ambiguous and depends upon the relative uncertainties confronting various activities within the firm. Adopting a team approach under which cooperation among various activities and/or departments is encouraged yields greater technological flexibility only if the various activities face comparable levels of uncertainty. Otherwise, if the extent of uncertainty confronting activities is significantly different it is lack of cooperation and the discouragement of teamwork which yields greater technological flexibility. Even though we have obtained the results for a very simple, binary specification of the distribution functions, the effect of internal structure upon the extent of variability in production can be extended to continuous distribution functions as well. The fact that intensified asymmetry of information increases the variability of production holds for more general distribution functions.