مجسم سازی تغییر استراتژیک :: نقش و تاثیر نقشه های فرآیند به عنوان اشیاء مرزی در ساماندهی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|16882||2007||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : European Management Journal, Volume 25, Issue 2, April 2007, Pages 104–117
Based on an in-depth case study of an organizational change programme within a major UK bank, this paper explores how managers use process maps to facilitate the diffusion of strategy ideas. Process maps legitimise and diffuse strategic change, they are flexible, being able to evolve and incorporate other tools and have the potential to metamorphose into repositories of knowledge, thereby signalling the permanence of the change programme. However, while process maps might be seen as powerful devices, they are also subject to the capabilities of those who use them and contingencies such as the requirement for interim success stories and broader factors of organisational timing, technology and culture.
The pace of change has never been greater than in the current business environment, affecting all organisations in all industries (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004, Burnes, 2004 and Carnall, 2003) and one of the greatest truisms in management today is that the successful management of change is crucial for any organisation to survive and succeed (Todnem By, 2005). Change is regarded as an ever present feature of organisational life at both operational and strategic levels (Burnes, 2004) and there can be little doubt regarding the importance of an organization’s ability to identify its future needs and how to manage the changes required to get there (Todnem By, 2005). In this way organisational change cannot be separated from strategy and vice versa. Due to its importance, change management is becoming a highly required management skill and a primary task for management today is the leadership of organisational change (Graetz, 2000). There is also a widespread discussion within the management literature on the detailed methods and tools for change (Werr, 1995) and their legitimacy is generally based on the belief in the effectiveness of their direct application to the change process (Werr et al., 1997). Of these methods and tools, process improvement methods have gained in popularity in recent years. For instance, all the larger management consultancy companies have in some way included the concept of BPR into their service portfolios, and it is the key tool in McKinsey’s core process re-design methodology (Werr et al., 1997). While the process view of the organisation is not new, the broadened scope of the processes of interest is; ranging from groups or departments in companies to whole companies or several companies (Werr et al., 1997). This broad cross-functional view is spreading rapidly, replacing functional applications to business improvement with a means of integrating business processes and reducing conflict and bottle necks within organisations. Although BPR is now less widely used due to its association with restructuring, layoffs and failed change programmes (Davenport, 1996), the concept of business process remains important in the literature and has attracted a proliferation of methodologies and tools (Melão and Pidd, 2000), one of the most widely used being process maps. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first objective is to empirically show the evolution and spread of process mapping throughout the change programme of a major UK Bank. The second objective is to conceptually explain the properties of the process map tool and the conditions which contribute to its successful use in organisational change. Research was carried out in a major UK bank undergoing a significant strategic change programme. The answer to the above objectives was sought through a case study approach. The case study provides a basis upon which theoretical propositions are formulated and generalised (analytic generalisation) (Yin, 2003). The choice of the case setting made it possible to analyse how process mapping as the major tool of change was employed in the bank by their internal consultants. This case study allowed careful tracking of the development and evolution of the process mapping technique over the time of the change programme and afforded insights into its multiple roles and impacts. This paper is divided into three main sections. First, a literature review of process mapping is followed by their reconceptualisation as boundary objects to gain insights into the effective use of process maps. Second, the empirical setting in the banking sector with research methods and case study evidence will be presented. Third, an empirical analysis of the case of process mapping as a change tool in a bank will be presented. Implications for change practitioners and suggestions for further research are formulated.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Research Problem The central aim of this study was to identify how process maps facilitate the diffusion of strategy ideas during organisational change. With regard to the case study of process mapping in BankCo there is clear evidence of the potential of this change tool to both generate and diffuse knowledge between key stakeholders in the strategic change process. Process maps were seen to diffuse strategic change through three modes of idea translation. First, by simplifying the content of the strategy process, process maps pro- vided a future vision of the organisation. Second, by operationalising the strategic change for multiple stakeholders, process maps enabled them to make sense of the change programme and the subsequent impact upon their work activities. Third, by embed- ding the strategy during implementation in multiple tools and communicating devices and ultimately into a permanent knowledge repository, the change was made concrete in the longer term. This paper makes three contributions to the litera- ture. First, it identifies some critical determinants of success for process maps in strategic change projects.This implies that boundary objects used in strategic change require deep knowledge and high experience levels about their technical capabilities on the part of change agents. Further, that the successful imple- mentation of boundary objects may be dependent upon contingencies such as an understanding of the organisational context in terms of culture and readiness for change as well as an adequate resourc- ing of possible supporting tools or technologies. Second, the study extends previous work on bound- ary objects by demonstrating how they might diffuse ideas throughout an organisation and linking these to their characteristics for effectiveness ( Carlile, 2002 ). The study also emphasises another character- istic, that of translating ideas, into and out from, other boundary objects. Third, the case study provides a detailed analysis of process maps in use during strategic change, highlighting how such a commonly used but superficially conceptualised boundary object may have a central and multifaceted significance for the strategic change process. Suggestions for Further Research There are at least two possible directions for future research on the role and impact of process maps in strategic change. The conceptual framework needs to be tested on a larger sample of firms in other indus- tries, such as knowledge intensive sectors, so as to have a deeper view of the variety of uses for process maps. Here I have concentrated on the diffusion of strategic change over the time-span of a single change project. A more in-depth analysis could profitably uncover how strategic ideas are generated and devel- oped using process maps and other tools, focussing upon the group interaction, decision making and cog- nitive processes which are stimulated by such tools.