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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|7249||2010||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Systems Architecture, Volume 56, Issues 4–6, April–June 2010, Pages 163–179
This paper focuses on the scheduling of tasks with hard and soft real-time constraints in open and dynamic real-time systems. It starts by presenting a capacity sharing and stealing (CSS) strategy that supports the coexistence of guaranteed and non-guaranteed bandwidth servers to efficiently handle soft tasks’ overloads by making additional capacity available from two sources: (i) reclaiming unused reserved capacity when jobs complete in less than their budgeted execution time and (ii) stealing reserved capacity from inactive non-isolated servers used to schedule best-effort jobs. CSS is then combined with the concept of bandwidth inheritance to efficiently exchange reserved bandwidth among sets of inter-dependent tasks which share resources and exhibit precedence constraints, assuming no previous information on critical sections and computation times is available. The proposed Capacity Exchange Protocol (CXP) has a better performance and a lower overhead when compared against other available solutions and introduces a novel approach to integrate precedence constraints among tasks of open real-time systems.
As an increasing number of users run both real-time and traditional desktop applications in the same system the issue of how to provide an efficient resource utilisation in this highly dynamic, open, and shared environment becomes very important. The need arises from the fact that independently developed services can enter and leave the system at any time, without any previous knowledge about their real execution requirements and tasks’ inter-arrival times. For most of these systems, the classical real-time approach based on a rigid offline design and worst-case execution time (WCET) assumptions would keep resources unused for most of the time. Usually, tasks’ WCET is rare and much longer than the average case. At the same time, it is increasingly difficult to compute WCET bounds in modern hardware without introducing excessive pessimism . Such a waste of resources can only be justified for very critical systems in which a single missed deadline may cause catastrophic consequences. A more flexible scheduling approach is then needed in order to increase resource usage. Flexibility is particularly important for small embedded devices used in consumer electronics, telecommunication systems, industrial automation, and automotive systems. In fact, in order to satisfy a set of constraints related to weight, space, and energy consumption, these systems are typically built using small microprocessors with low processing power and limited resources. Guarantees based on average estimations are typically acceptable for soft real-time tasks since a deadline miss does not constitute a system or application failure but it is only less satisfactory for the user. Nevertheless, when scheduling soft tasks based on average estimated needs any chosen approach must handle the case when a task needs to execute more than its guaranteed reserved time. Not only it is desirable to achieve temporal isolation among soft tasks as well as the schedulability of hard tasks must not be compromised. In , Mercer et al. propose a scheme based on capacity reserves to remove the need of knowing the WCET of each task under the Rate Monotonic  scheduling policy. A reserve is a couple (Ci,Ti)(Ci,Ti) indicating that a task τiτi can execute for at most CiCi units of time in each period TiTi. If a task instance needs to execute for more than CiCi, the remaining portion of the instance is scheduled in background. Based on a similar idea of capacity reserves, Abeni and Buttazo  proposed the Constant Bandwidth Server (CBS) scheduler to handle soft real-time requests with a variable or unknown execution behaviour under the Earliest Deadline First (EDF)  scheduling policy. To avoid unpredictable delays on hard real-time tasks, soft tasks are isolated through a bandwidth reservation mechanism, according to which each soft task gets a fraction of the CPU and it is scheduled in such a way that it will never demand more than its reserved bandwidth, independently of its actual requests. This is achieved by assigning each soft task a deadline, computed as a function of the reserved bandwidth and its actual requests. If a task requires to execute more than its expected computation time, its deadline is postponed so that its reserved bandwidth is not exceeded. As a consequence, overruns occurring on a served task will only delay that task, without compromising the bandwidth assigned to other tasks. However, with CBS, if a server completes a task in less than its budgeted execution time no other server is able to efficiently reuse the amount of computational resources left unused. To overcome this drawback, CBS has been extended by several reclaiming schemes , , ,  and  proposed to support an efficient sharing of computational resources left unused by early completing tasks. Such techniques have been proved to be successful in improving the response times of soft real-time tasks while preserving all hard real-time constraints. Nevertheless, not all computational tasks in modern open real-time systems follow a traditional periodic pattern. For example, aperiodic complex optimisation tasks may take varying amounts of time to complete depending on the desired solution’s quality or current state of the environment , , , ,  and . Furthermore, the existing reclaiming schemes are unable to donate reserved, but still unused, capacities to currently overloaded servers. Based upon a careful study of the ways in which unused reserved capacities can be more efficiently used to meet deadlines of tasks whose resource usage exceeds their reservations, our previous work  proposed the coexistence of the traditional isolated servers with a novel non-isolated type of servers, combining an efficient reclamation of residual capacities with a controlled isolation loss. The goal of the Capacity Sharing and Stealing (CSS) scheduler is to reduce the mean tardiness of periodic guaranteed jobs by handling overloads with additional capacity available from two sources: (i) by reclaiming unused allocated capacity when jobs complete in less than their budgeted execution time; and (ii) by stealing allocated capacities from inactive non-isolated servers used to schedule aperiodic best-effort jobs. However, CSS assumes tasks to be independent. A challenging problem in open real-time systems is how to schedule inter-dependent tasks that share resources and exhibit precedence constraints without a complete previous knowledge about their actual runtime behaviour. The Capacity Exchange Protocol (CXP)  builds upon CSS and integrates its capacity sharing and stealing strategy with the concept of bandwidth inheritance  to mitigate the cost of blocking on soft real-time tasks whose actual execution behaviour is only known by executing tasks until completion. While preserving the isolation principles of independent tasks, upon blocking, a task is allowed to be executed on more than its dedicated server, efficiently exchanging reserved capacities among servers to reduce the undesirable effects caused by inter-task blocking. In this paper we provide a complete and consistent description of these protocols and extend the conducted evaluation, simultaneously dealing with capacity sharing, stealing and exchanging. More important, the paper also provides a proof of correctness of the proposed runtime exchange of reserved capacities. Hard schedulability guarantees can be provided either for independent and inter-dependent task sets, even when hard and soft real-time tasks do share resources and exhibit precedence constraints in open real-time systems. In the remainder of this paper, we describe the system model and used notation in Section 2. Section 3 analyses the most significant scheduling approaches proposed to improve the performance of soft real-time tasks and introduces the need for the novel capacity sharing and stealing approach described in Section 4. The correctness of the proposed runtime exchange of reserved capacities for independent task sets is proved in Section 5. CXP is described in detail in Sections 6 and 7, as a way to efficiently support shared resources and precedence constraints among inter-dependent task sets of open real-time systems. Although the goal of CXP is to minimise the cost of blocking among soft real-time tasks, Section 8 describes how hard schedulability guarantees can still be provided even when hard and soft real-time tasks share resources, at the expense of some pessimism on the computation of blocking times when tasks access (nested) critical sections. Section 9 presents and analyses the achieved evaluation results. Finally, Section 10 concludes this paper.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper integrates and extends recent advances in dynamic deadline scheduling with resource reservation. Namely, while achieving isolation among tasks, the proposed Capacity Sharing and Stealing (CSS) approach can efficiently reclaim residual capacities originated by earlier completions and steal reserved unused capacities from inactive non-isolated servers, effectively reducing the mean tardiness of soft real-time tasks. CSS is then combined with the concept of bandwidth inheritance to tackle the challenging problem of how to schedule tasks that share resources and exhibit precedence constraints without any previous knowledge of how many services will need to be concurrently executed neither which resources will be accessed and by how long they will be held. Rather than trying to account borrowed capacities and exchanging them later in the exact same amount, the proposed Capacity Exchange Protocol (CXP) focus on greedily exchanging extra capacities as early, and not necessarily as fairly, as possible and introduces a novel approach to integrate precedence constraints into the task model. The achieved results clearly justify the use of a capacity exchange mechanism that reclaims as much capacity as possible and does not restrict itself to exchange capacities only within a resource sharing group. It is proven that CXP achieves a better system’s performance when compared against other available solutions and has a lower overhead.