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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|7274||2013||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Microprocessors and Microsystems, Available online 14 May 2013
Due to the rapidly growing requirements of low power consumption and long battery life, the energy efficiency is becoming one of the most important concerns in the electronic system design. At the system level, the Dynamic Power Management (DPM) and Dynamic Voltage (and Frequency) Scaling (DVS) are two widely applied run-time techniques to adjust the trade-off between the system performance and power dissipation. In addition, the chip multi-core processor platforms have become the de-facto solution to cope with the continuous increase of the system complexity. In this article, we study the problem of combined application of DPM and DVS in the context of hard real-time systems on cluster-based multi-core processor platforms. We propose a heuristic algorithm based on the simulated annealing approach and introduce its online execution making the system adaptive to the run-time changes. Our approach considers multiple low power states with non-negligible state switching overhead. The experimental results show that our algorithm can significantly reduce the power consumption in comparison with existing algorithms.
In recent years, the power consumption of modern electronic systems (especially battery-driven systems) is becoming one of the most important design concerns. Low energy consumption, long battery life and low heat dissipation are major development requirements and objectives to reduce the system operation costs. From the system level point of view, the Dynamic Power Management (DPM) and Dynamic Voltage (and Frequency) Scaling (DVS) are two well established techniques to obtain the best trade-off between the system performance and power consumption during run-time. In general, the main idea behind DPM tries to selectively shut down the unused system components and wake them up when required. Since the switching on/off process usually needs to retain the register contents and stabilize the power supply, a careless shutdown is not always justified. For instance, the entry latency of deep-sleep mode on Intel® PXA270 takes 600 μs  and is obviously non-negligible if the task execution time is in the same order of magnitude. Thus, to capture this issue Benini et al.  introduced the concept of break even time, which describes the time needed at least to stay at a low power state to compensate the switching overhead. In contrast to the DPM, the DVS technique is applied while the components are in the active state and tries to slow down them to achieve power saving. In CMOS-based technology, if only dynamic power consumption is considered, the energy consumption of a component over a time interval is a convex and increasing function of speed (frequency). Due to the continuous advancement in deep sub-micron process technology towards nanoscale circuits, the leakage power becomes dominant. Thus, the energy consumption becomes merely a convex function. The critical speed is defined to cover this aspect , i.e. no tasks should ever run below this speed. Note that we are not interested in scaling down the frequency while keeping the supply voltage, because it is not beneficial from the energy saving point of view.1 However, it may provide advantages in terms of thermal control to extend battery life. Since this work focuses on the energy aspect, scaling the frequency alone is out of scope of this article. In general, both DPM and DVS have to be used with great caution in the context of hard real-time systems due to timing constraints. An unjustified shutdown or slowdown may cause a delayed task execution and therefore a deadline miss. Furthermore, some studies ,  and  have reported that the DPM- and DVS-strategies are working contradictory, i.e. the DPM strategy tries to finish the tasks as fast as possible, so that more idle time is available for staying at the sleep states, while the DVS strategy attempts to complete the tasks as slow as possible to reduce the active energy consumption.2 In fact, the problem of the optimal application of DPM and DVS for hard real-time tasks is NPNP-hard . In the early days, silicon vendors were continuously pursuing high speed single-core processor to deal with growing performance requirements. However, nowadays more and more focus has been put on the multi-core processor platform due to lower power dissipation. A convincing confirmation was the cancellation of Tejas and the move towards multi-core platforms by Intel in May 2004 . In the context of multi-core platforms, the DPM and DVS can be applied in different levels, either on the entire processor chip or on the individual core. They are referred to as the full-chip platforms and per-core platforms, respectively. In the early years, full-chip platforms were commonly adopted because of the cost-efficiency of a shared power supply net. However, they lack the flexibility for power management, because all the cores have to operate at the same speed (e.g. Intel Core™ 2 Quad ) simultaneously. With the introduction of Frequency/Voltage Island and on-chip voltage regulator, per-core platforms (e.g. AMD Phenom™ Quad-Core ) gain more and more interests. However, it suffers the problem of high implementation costs, which could become impractical if the number of cores dramatically increases. In this article our focus is on the cluster-based multi-core platform, which combines the advantages of the per-core and full-chip platforms and offers the best compromise. The cores are divided into clusters and the cores in the same cluster must operate at the same speed. Clearly, the cluster-based multi-core platform is a general form of the per-core and full-chip platforms. Hence, the approach presented in this article is applicable for them as well. Speaking of multi-core real-time systems, there are two types of real-time scheduling algorithms : the partitioned scheduling and the global scheduling. In this article we concentrate on the former, because it provides the major advantage that the well-established single-core processor real-time scheduling, such as Earliest Deadline First (EDF) and Rate Monotonic (RM), can be adopted. This article contains two main contributions. Firstly, we propose a simulated annealing based heuristic algorithm to minimize the energy consumption of hard real-time systems using DPM and DVS on cluster-based multi-core platforms, which was rarely addressed in the existing work. In addition, our algorithm considers multiple sleep states with non-negligible state switching overhead for both DPM and DVS techniques, which is often ignored in existing studies as well. Furthermore, in the context of DPM/DVS based energy-aware real-time scheduling there are online and offline approaches. Obviously, the online approaches are more advanced in terms of the flexibility, since they are adaptive to the system changes. However, in the literature, most of the online approaches consider only dynamic slack and lack the ability to explore the static slack, because the sophisticated static slack exploration algorithms are usually very time-consuming. In this work, the second main contribution is to propose a technique allowing our algorithm to be executed in an adaptive fashion, which enables a completely online solution to explore the static and dynamic slack with logarithmic time overhead at each scheduling point. The remainder of this article is organized as follows. The Section 2 gives an overview of related work. In the Section 3 we formally define the system model and the problem. The Section 4 describes the details of the main algorithm. Afterwards, the Section 5 shows how the algorithm could be performed in an adaptive fashion with logarithmic complexity and the Section 6 extends the technique by taking the non-negligible DVS state switching overhead into consideration. Finally, before we conclude the article in the Section 8, the experiment results are presented in the Section 7.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
With the continuous increasing of system complexity and the technology advance towards multi-core processor platforms, the problem of energy efficiency becomes more and more difficult. In this article we focused on scheduling hard real-time tasks on cluster-based multi-core processor platforms. The well-established techniques DPM and DVS are applied together to minimize the system power consumption. We proposed a simulated annealing based heuristic algorithm and its online execution with logarithmic complexity at each scheduling point. Our approach is able to deal with multiple low power states with non-negligible state switching overhead for both DPM and DVS. Furthermore, both static slack and dynamic slack are explored and utilized. Finally, through the experiment results our approach shows its great energy efficiency in comparison with the existing algorithms.