تاثیر ایدئولوژی پیوریتن بر جنبه هایی از مدیریت پروژه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|3113||2007||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 25, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 10–20
This paper examines the impact of Puritan ideology on various aspects of project management. By using a memetic approach to project management research, this paper traces the development of the ethos or spirit of project management from its Puritan origins. It argues that contrary to traditional thinking, project management has developed against a background of Puritan elements (memes) that are favourable to the development of capitalism. Moreover, it is suggested that these religious origins continue to impact in a conservative way on how the project management discipline evolves; limiting its development, oversimplifying the process of managing people, and consequentially thwarting nonconformists.
The origins of project management (PM) are traditionally considered to be deeply rooted in antiquity , with its present day methodology and body of knowledge (BoK) born out of the construction and military weapons industry . I suggest this is an oversimplification that portrays PM in a pragmatic and secular manner with no reference to its anecdotal, mythmaking, and religious origins. PM is used today in all aspects and areas of commerce and industry, and this trend is likely to continue . So why do people individually and collectively believe in PM, and why is it spreading so profusely ? The reasons are more complex than those suggested by our traditional view of PM as an efficient method of increasing productivity. It has been suggested that one possible reason for the rising faith in PM is that it provides a sense of meaning, purpose, and control to work in a fast changing society that leaves many feeling threatened and insecure about an unforeseeable future . I suggest one possible explanation for its profuse dissemination is that as a concept it survives better than any other in our Western capitalist corporate environment. In this paper I employ a memetic approach to PM research (see Whitty ) which observes over time the evolution of memes and the behaviours they create. I put forward the case that Puritan memes have influenced the development of the ‘spirit’ of PM. Furthermore, that these memes have evolved through, and been shaped by, the ideological eras known as Newtonianism, Liberalism, and Taylorism. I begin with a brief overview of memes, how they spread, and how we can begin to observe them by the behaviours they create. Next, I highlight significant memes that provide the social backdrop for Western religiosity. I then define the spirit of PM, and subsequently illustrate the evolution of its inherited traits. Finally I reflect on the impact such Puritan origins have on various aspects of PM such as; how it evolves, how it is studied and practiced, the role of the project manager, the project team and the profession, as well as the impact on the project organisation and how the PM body creates knowledge. Fig. 1 summarizes the influence Puritanism has had on the formation of memes that underpin the ideological eras known as Newtonianism, Liberalism, and Taylorism, and the influence they have all had on PM. Table 1 summarizes the final discussion of this paper and highlights the impact of Puritanical memes on aspects of PM.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this paper I have argued that by observing the behaviour of PM practitioners, their organisations and professional associations, a strong case can be made that PM behaviours are being driven by significant memes that are either directly Puritan or have evolved from Puritanism. Further, that consequentially the impact of such memes on the discipline of PM, particularly its practitioners, is considerable. Of most concern is the canonisation of the PM BoKs. As a PM practitioner I harbour the hope that scholars and practitioners are evolving the discipline in a free and unconstrained manner, the result of which I further hope will help me personally in my work. My argument suggests this is not the case, and that the framework and content of the various BoKs has been locked down. I suggest that a significant amount of PM journal papers and text books reinforce the spirit of PM, reinterpret past BoKs in a new light (e.g. PMBOK® Guide Third Edition), or highlight “ways to cope” with the project environment. Through no fault of their own, scholars and practitioners alike are being driven by powerful memes that not only drive their behaviour but create the very fabric of their society. We owe it to ourselves to break free of the tyranny of these Puritan memes. But first, we must acknowledge that our past and present actions have been determined by them.